Citizens participate in all stages of the scientific process.
Citizen science includes projects designed by scientists in which citizens participate in the collection of data (contributory projects), projects structured by scientists in which citizens have opportunities and tools to participate in the design of the project, the collection of data and its analysis (collaborative projects), and projects in which citizens participate in all stages of the scientific process (co-created projects). Such projects are designed to advance society’s understanding of the environment, ecosystem services, or environmental risks, and often involve citizens in conservation and improvements in environmental health. The benefits, therefore, are shared between the scientific community and the general public.
Citizens' messages are transmitted from the bottom-up in different ways. Centralized systems use communication technologies such as mobile applications, or on the other hand citizens may get in contact with environmental managers and researchers. The implications of this are more than merely technological: they constitute a de facto increase in societal empowerment which can lead to changes in governance models, especially in the field of environmental policies. Despite the youth of these programs at CREAF, we have already shown that citizen science can be used to set up early warning systems, environmental management systems, or even the collaborative drafting of climate change adaptation strategies.
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