Contribution of citizen science towards international biodiversity monitoring

Chandler, M., See, L., Copas, K., Bonde, A.M.Z., López, B.C., Danielsen, F., Legind, J.K., Masinde, S., Miller-Rushing, A.J., Newman, G., Rosemartin, A., Turak, E. (2016) Contribution of citizen science towards international biodiversity monitoring. Biological Conservation. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.09.004

Abstract:

Mitigating the stress of drought on soil respiration by selective thinning: Contrasting effects of drought on soil respiration of two oak species in a mediterranean forest

Chang, C.-T., Sperlich, D., Sabaté, S., Sánchez-Costa, E., Cotillas, M., Espelta, J.M., Gracia, C. (2016) Mitigating the stress of drought on soil respiration by selective thinning: Contrasting effects of drought on soil respiration of two oak species in a mediterranean forest. Forests. 7: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.3390/f7110263

Abstract:

Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro)

Christoffersen, B.O., Gloor, M., Fauset, S., Fyllas, N.M., Galbraith, D.R., Baker, T.R., Kruijt, B., Rowland, L., Fisher, R.A., Binks, O.J., Sevanto, S., Xu, C., Jansen, S., Choat, B., Mencuccini, M., McDowell, N.G., Meir, P. (2016) Linking hydraulic traits to tropical forest function in a size-structured and trait-driven model (TFS v.1-Hydro). Geoscientific Model Development. 9: 4227-4255.
Link
Doi: 10.5194/gmd-9-4227-2016

Abstract:

Contrasting historical and current land-use correlation with diverse components of current alien plant invasions in Mediterranean habitats

Clotet, M., Basnou, C., Bagaria, G., Pino, J. (2016) Contrasting historical and current land-use correlation with diverse components of current alien plant invasions in Mediterranean habitats. Biological Invasions. 18: 2897-2909.
Link
Doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1181-7

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Specific leaf area and hydraulic traits explain niche segregation along an aridity gradient in Mediterranean woody species

Costa-Saura J.M., Martínez-Vilalta J., Trabucco A., Spano D., Mereu S. (2016) Specific leaf area and hydraulic traits explain niche segregation along an aridity gradient in Mediterranean woody species. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 21: 23-30.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.ppees.2016.05.001

Abstract:

Despite growing evidence of changes in plant functional traits (FT) along environmental gradients, the way they shape species niches (i.e. how they alternatively influence the limits, width and environmental optimums of species niche) remains only partially understood. Thus, Species Distribution Models were developed and evaluated using distribution data from the Spanish Forest Inventory for 21of the most common Mediterranean woody species, and used to derive different environmental characteristics of species niche, which were then correlated against species-specific values of 14 FT and combinations of relatively orthogonal FT. Species leaf traits, and in particular Specific Leaf Area (SLA), were highly correlated with species niche characteristics regarding aridity (especially with the more arid limit). Hydraulic traits, i.e. the water potential at which a species loses 50% of xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation (PLC50), and species hydraulic safety margins (SM), were better correlated with species aridity niche optimums. Overall, the best model fits, particularly regarding species' optimum and maximum aridity limit, were obtained when SLA and hydraulic traits (either PLC50 or SM) were used in combination. The study shows how in the Mediterranean region a single trait may be able to explain broad differences in species distributions, but also that the coordination of relatively independent traits achieves a more accurate representation of their environmental limits, particularly at the dry end of the species' range. The approach used in this study relies on the physiological limits of a species and, to a certain extent, on the mechanisms behind them, adding robustness and accuracy to predict species distribution and mortality under climate change scenarios. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH.

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Aboveground and belowground biomass allocation patterns in two Mediterranean oaks with contrasting leaf habit: an insight into carbon stock in young oak coppices

Cotillas M., Espelta J.M., Sánchez-Costa E., Sabaté S. (2016) Aboveground and belowground biomass allocation patterns in two Mediterranean oaks with contrasting leaf habit: an insight into carbon stock in young oak coppices. European Journal of Forest Research. 135: 243-252.
Link
Doi: 10.1007/s10342-015-0932-9

Abstract:

In the last decades, the global interest in the role of forests as carbon sinks has grown, and thus, studies aimed at estimating tree biomass have progressively increased. However, few surveys have focused on young coppices, although they are abundant worldwide in areas regenerating after disturbance (e.g. wildfire, clearcutting). In the Mediterranean Basin, young coppices are very frequent, and most of them are formed by evergreen and deciduous oaks (Quercus spp.). In this survey, we have studied the biomass allocation patterns of two oaks coexisting in coppices, the evergreen Quercus ilex and the deciduous Quercus cerrioides, comparing them in the light of their different leaf habit, which may influence their physiological performance in the context of climate change. We have also obtained allometric equations for each species and its components, which we have used to calculate the carbon stock in the sampled area, as an insight into the potential of young oak coppices to sequester carbon. The results indicate a higher biomass investment of Q. ilex in the stump and a higher leafiness and allocation to roots in Q. cerrioides. In the light of these differences, the evergreen Q. ilex could be defined as a “resource-saving” species in comparison with the more “resource-demanding” Q. cerrioides. The allometric equations were able to predict from 78 to 99 % of the variation in biomass using diameter as predictor variable for all the tree components aside of the stump. Overall carbon stock estimation in the young coppice of our study area was 43.2 Mg ha−1, of which 62 % is stored belowground. These results highlight the importance of biomass allocation in the belowground compartment in Mediterranean young oak coppices as a temporal carbon sink. Moreover, they provide evidence that these forests may store a relevant amount of carbon, often ignored in forest inventories. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

Crowther, T.W., Todd-Brown, K.E.O., Rowe, C.W., Wieder, W.R., Carey, J.C., MacHmuller, M.B., Snoek, B.L., Fang, S., Zhou, G., Allison, S.D., Blair, J.M., Bridgham, S.D., Burton, A.J., Carrillo, Y., Reich, P.B., Clark, J.S., Classen, A.T., Dijkstra, F.A., Elberling, B., Emmett, B.A., Estiarte, M., Frey, S.D., Guo, J., Harte, J., Jiang, L., Johnson, B.R., Kroël-Dulay, G., Larsen, K.S., Laudon, H., Lavallee, J.M., Luo, Y., Lupascu, M., Ma, L.N., Marhan, S., Michelsen, A., Mohan, J., Niu, S., Pendall, E., Peñuelas, J., Pfeifer-Meister, L., Poll, C., Reinsch, S., Reynolds, L.L., Schmidt, I.K., Sistla, S., Sokol, N.W., Templer, P.H., Treseder, K.K., Welker, J.M., Bradford, M.A. (2016) Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming. Nature. 540: 104-108.
Link
Doi: 10.1038/nature20150

Abstract:

Visible ozone-like injury, defoliation, and mortality in two Pinus uncinata stands in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain)

Diaz-de-Quijano M., Kefauver S., Ogaya R., Vollenweider P., Ribas À., Peñuelas J. (2016) Visible ozone-like injury, defoliation, and mortality in two Pinus uncinata stands in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain). European Journal of Forest Research. 135: 687-696.
Link
Doi: 10.1007/s10342-016-0964-9

Abstract:

Ozone concentrations in the Pyrenees have exceeded the thresholds for forest protection since 1994. We surveyed the severity of visible O3 injuries, crown defoliation, and tree mortality of Pinus uncinata, the dominant species in subalpine forests in this mountain range, along two altitudinal and O3 gradients in the central Catalan Pyrenees and analysed their relationships with the local environmental conditions. The severity of visible O3 injuries increased with increasing mean annual [O3] when summer water availability was high (summer precipitation/potential evapotranspiration above 0.96), whereas higher [O3] did not produce more visible injuries during drier conditions. Mean crown defoliation and tree mortality ranged between 20.4–66.4 and 0.6–29.6 %, respectively, depending on the site. Both were positively correlated with the accumulated O3 exposure during the last 5 years and with variables associated with soil–water availability, which favours greater O3 uptake by increasing stomatal conductance. The results indicate that O3 contributed to the crown defoliation and tree mortality, although further research is clearly warranted to determine the contributions of the multiple stress factors to crown defoliation and mortality in P. uncinata stands in the Catalan Pyrenees. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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The role of motor diversity in foraging innovations: A cross-species comparison in urban birds

Diquelou, M.C., Griffin, A.S., Sol, D. (2016) The role of motor diversity in foraging innovations: A cross-species comparison in urban birds. Behavioral Ecology. 27: 584-591.
Link
Doi: 10.1093/beheco/arv190

Abstract:

Study on the Biology of Calidea spp. (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae), an Insect Pest of Jatropha curcas in South-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso

Djimmy Y.W., Nacro S. (2016) Study on the Biology of Calidea spp. (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae), an Insect Pest of Jatropha curcas in South-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 109: 335-342.
Link
Doi: 10.1093/aesa/sav120

Abstract:

Jatropha curcas Linné is a nonedible oleaginous plant in the family Euphorbiaceae. Its seeds provide oil for industrial use, such as biofuels, and contribute to the livelihoods of small-scale farmers in rural areas. J. curcas is attacked by many insect pests, including Calidea spp., a heteropteran pest of its fruit and flowers. This insect was surveyed from May 2013 to January 2014 in the Sissili province of southern Burkina Faso. Calidea spp. were collected from J. curcas plantations within a radius of 15 km around the Léo township and bred in the laboratory under similar conditions. The mean ratio of fertility was 20.3% and the mean fecundity was 132 eggs. The biological cycle of the insect is composed of one egg stadium, five larval instars, and one adult stadium. Egg incubation took 6.2-8.3 d, and the five larval instars lasted between 27.1 and 30.1 d. The average life span of Calidea spp. adults was 114.6 d for females and 98.1 d for males. The female had an average size of 17.6 mm against 16.6 mm for the male. These findings are the first reported on this insect pest in Burkina Faso. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.

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