Responses of greenhouse-gas emissions to land-use change from rice to jasmine production in subtropical China

Wang C., Li X., Min Q., Wang W., Sardans J., Zeng C., Tong C., Peñuelas J. (2019) Responses of greenhouse-gas emissions to land-use change from rice to jasmine production in subtropical China. Atmospheric Environment. 201: 391-401.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.12.032

Abstract:

We studied the impacts of an increasingly common change in land use from paddy field to jasmine fields on the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), which have supposed the transformation of more than 1200 ha only in the last decade in the surroundings of Fuzhou city in response to economic changes. The possible increases that this can suppose constitutes and environmental concern in China. We studied areas dedicated to rice crop that have been partially converted to jasmine cultivation with some parts still kept as rice fields. Emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O varied significantly among the seasons. CO2 and CH4 cumulative emissions and the global-warming potential (GWP) of these emissions were significantly lower in the jasmine than the paddy field. N2O emission, N2O cumulative emission, however, were higher in the jasmine than the paddy field, despite in some concrete studied periods the differences were not statistically significant. The total decrease in GHG emissions from the conversion from rice to jasmine production was strongly influenced by the indirect effects of various changes in soil conditions. The expected changes due to the great differences in water and fertilization use and management and organic matter input to soil between these two crops were in great part due to modified soil traits. According to structural equation models, the strong direct effects of the change from rice to Jasmine crop reducing the emissions of CO2 and N2O were partially decreased by the indirect effects of crop type change decreasing soil pH and soil [Fe2+] for CO2 emissions and by decreasing soil salinity and soil [Fe3+] for N2O emissions. The negative effects of the crop conversion on CH4 emissions were mostly due to the globally negative indirect effects on soil conditions, by decreases in soil salinity, water content and [Fe2+]. Soil salinity, water content, pH, [Fe2+], [Fe3+] and [total Fe] were significantly lower in the jasmine than the paddy field, but temperature had the opposite pattern. CO2 emissions were generally correlated positively with salinity, temperature, and water content and negatively with [Fe3+] and [total Fe] in both fields. CH4 emissions were positively correlated with salinity, temperature, water content and pH in both fields. N2O emissions were positively correlated with temperature and were negatively correlated with water content, pH, [Fe2+], [Fe3+] and [total Fe] in both fields. CO2 was the most important GHG for the GWPs, and the total GWP was significantly lower for the jasmine than for the rice cropland field. The change in the land use in this area of paddy fields will decreased the global GHG emission, and the effect on the GWPs was mostly due to changes in soil properties. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

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The response of stocks of C, N, and P to plant invasion in the coastal wetlands of China

Wang W., Sardans J., Wang C., Zeng C., Tong C., Chen G., Huang J., Pan H., Peguero G., Vallicrosa H., Peñuelas J. (2019) The response of stocks of C, N, and P to plant invasion in the coastal wetlands of China. Global Change Biology. 25: 733-743.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/gcb.14491

Abstract:

The increasing success of invasive plant species in wetland areas can threaten their capacity to store carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (C, N, and P). Here, we have investigated the relationships between the different stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), and total C, N, and P pools in the plant–soil system from eight different wetland areas across the South-East coast of China, where the invasive tallgrass Spartina alterniflora has replaced the native tall grasses Phragmites australis and the mangrove communities, originally dominated by the native species Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina. The invasive success of Spartina alterniflora replacing Phragmites australis did not greatly influence soil traits, biomass accumulation or plant–soil C and N storing capacity. However, the resulting higher ability to store P in both soil and standing plant biomass (approximately more than 70 and 15 kg P by ha, respectively) in the invasive than in the native tall grass communities suggesting the possibility of a decrease in the ecosystem N:P ratio with future consequences to below- and aboveground trophic chains. The results also showed that a future advance in the native mangrove replacement by Spartina alterniflora could constitute a serious environmental problem. This includes enrichment of sand in the soil, with the consequent loss of nutrient retention capacity, as well as a sharp decrease in the stocks of C (2.6 and 2.2 t C ha-1 in soil and stand biomass, respectively), N, and P in the plant–soil system. This should be associated with a worsening of the water quality by aggravating potential eutrophication processes. Moreover, the loss of carbon and nutrient decreases the potential overall fertility of the system, strongly hampering the reestablishment of woody mangrove communities in the future. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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Policy-driven monitoring and evaluation: Does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems?

Waylen K.A., Blackstock K.L., van Hulst F.J., Damian C., Horváth F., Johnson R.K., Kanka R., Külvik M., Macleod C.J.A., Meissner K., Oprina-Pavelescu M.M., Pino J., Primmer E., Rîșnoveanu G., Šatalová B., Silander J., Špulerová J., Suškevičs M., Van Uytvanck J. (2019) Policy-driven monitoring and evaluation: Does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems?. Science of the Total Environment. 662: 373-384.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.462

Abstract:

Inadequate Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is often thought to hinder adaptive management of socio-ecological systems. A key influence on environmental management practices are environmental policies: however, their consequences for M&E practices have not been well-examined. We examine three policy areas - the Water Framework Directive, the Natura 2000 Directives, and the Agri-Environment Schemes of the Common Agricultural Policy - whose statutory requirements influence how the environment is managed and monitored across Europe. We use a comparative approach to examine what is monitored, how monitoring is carried out, and how results are used to update management, based on publicly available documentation across nine regional and national cases. The requirements and guidelines of these policies have provided significant impetus for monitoring: however, we find this policy-driven M&E usually does not match the ideals of what is needed to inform adaptive management. There is a tendency to focus on understanding state and trends rather than tracking the effect of interventions; a focus on specific biotic and abiotic indicators at the expense of understanding system functions and processes, especially social components; and limited attention to how context affects systems, though this is sometimes considered via secondary data. The resulting data are sometimes publicly-accessible, but it is rarely clear if and how these influence decisions at any level, whether this be in the original policy itself or at the level of measures such as site management plans. Adjustments to policy-driven M&E could better enable learning for adaptive management, by reconsidering what supports a balanced understanding of socio-ecological systems and decision-making. Useful strategies include making more use of secondary data, and more transparency in data-sharing and decision-making. Several countries and policy areas already offer useful examples. Such changes are essential given the influence of policy, and the urgency of enabling adaptive management to safeguard socio-ecological systems. © 2019 The Authors

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Erratum to: Contrasting responses of autumn-leaf senescence to daytime and night-time warming (Nature Climate Change, (2018), 8, 12, (1092-1096), 10.1038/s41558-018-0346-z)

Wu C., Wang X., Wang H., Ciais P., Peñuelas J., Myneni R.B., Desai A.R., Gough C.M., Gonsamo A., Black A.T., Jassal R.S., Ju W., Yuan W., Fu Y., Shen M., Li S., Liu R., Chen J.M., Ge Q. (2019) Erratum to: Contrasting responses of autumn-leaf senescence to daytime and night-time warming (Nature Climate Change, (2018), 8, 12, (1092-1096), 10.1038/s41558-018-0346-z). Nature Climate Change. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1038/s41558-018-0392-6

Abstract:

In the version of this Letter originally published, there were errors in Fig. 1a. The sites denoted purple were described in the legend as ‘Pday>0.05 & Pnight>0.05’, but should have been labelled ‘Pday<0.05 & Pnight>0.05’. The sites denoted green were described in the legend as ‘Pday>0.05 & Pnight>0.05’, but should have been labelled ‘Pday>0.05 & Pnight<0.05’. The sites denoted orange were described in the legend as ‘Pday>0.05 & Pnight>0.05’, but should have been labelled ‘Pday<0.05 & Pnight<0.05’. These errors have now been corrected. © 2019, Springer Nature Limited.

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Straw biochar increases the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacterial community for better rape (Brassica napus) growth and phosphate uptake

Zheng B.-X., Ding K., Yang X.-R., Wadaan M.A.M., Hozzein W.N., Peñuelas J., Zhu Y.-G. (2019) Straw biochar increases the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacterial community for better rape (Brassica napus) growth and phosphate uptake. Science of the Total Environment. 647: 1113-1120.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.454

Abstract:

The direct application of inorganic-phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (iPSBs) for improving the efficiency of phosphorus (P) use leads to a low rate of bacterial survival. Biochar is a good inoculum carrier for microbial survival, and diverse feedstocks can have different effects. We generated an iPSB community using seven selected iPSB strains with various phylogenic taxonomies and P-solubilizing abilities. Biochar was then inoculated with the iPSB community and applied to soil in pots seeded with rape (Brassica napus). Growth of the rape for four weeks and the effects of biochars produced from six raw feedstocks, rice straw, rice husks, soybean straw, peanut shells, corn cobs and wood, were compared. The synthetic iPSB community had a larger capacity to solubilize inorganic P and exude organic anions than any of the individual strains. The structure of the iPSB community was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing four weeks after inoculation. All seven iPSB strains were detected, dominated by Arthrobacter defluvii 06-OD12. The abundance of the iPSB community was significantly correlated with rape biomass, P content and P uptake (P

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Responses to soil pH gradients of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria community

Zheng B.-X., Zhang D.-P., Wang Y., Hao X.-L., Wadaan M.A.M., Hozzein W.N., Peñuelas J., Zhu Y.-G., Yang X.-R. (2019) Responses to soil pH gradients of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria community. Scientific Reports. 9: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-37003-w

Abstract:

Soil pH is commonly considered a dominant factor affecting the function of microbiota. Few studies, however, have focused on communities of bacteria able to solubilize inorganic phosphate (iPSB), which are important for the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P), because finding an effective method to assess the abundance and diversity of iPSB communities is difficult. We used a newly reported method of database alignment and quantified the gene pqqC to analyze the compositions of iPSB communities from five soils with pH gradients ranging from 4 to 8. The iPSB community structure differed significantly between these soil types. Among iPSB community, Bacillus was the dominant genus, followed by Arthrobacter and Streptomyces. A redundancy analysis indicated that soil pH was the most important of 15 soil factors and their pairwise interactions, accounting for 5.12% of the variance. The abundance of the iPSB communities increased with pH within the gradients which was confirmed by experimental adjustment of pH, suggesting that the defect P status in high pH soil was speculated as the driving force of iPSB community population. Our study demonstrated the dominant role of soil pH on the iPSB community, which may contribute to the understanding the possible mechanism of microbial P mobilization for better improvement of P use-efficiency. © 2019, The Author(s).

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Early stage litter decomposition across biomes

(2018) Early stage litter decomposition across biomes. . : -.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.012

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Fitxa AIGUA I CANVI GLOBAL (català)

(2018) Fitxa AIGUA I CANVI GLOBAL (català). . : -.

Annual Report CREAF 2017

(2018) Annual Report CREAF 2017. . : -.

Upscaling urban recycled water schemes: An analysis of the presence of required governance conditions in the city of Sabadell (Spain)

Alberich J.P., Mukhtarov F., Dieperink C., Driessen P., Broekman A. (2018) Upscaling urban recycled water schemes: An analysis of the presence of required governance conditions in the city of Sabadell (Spain). Water (Switzerland). 11: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.3390/w11010011

Abstract:

Cleaning wastewater and using it again for secondary purposes is a measure to address water scarcity in urban areas. However, upscaling of recycled water schemes is challenging, and little is known about the governance conditions which are required for this. This paper addresses this knowledge gap. Based on a review of governance literature we suggest that five governance conditions are necessary for a successful upscaling of recycled water schemes: (1) policy leadership, (2) policy coordination, (3) availability of financial resources, (4) awareness of a problem, and (5) the presence of a public forum. We applied these concepts in a case study on the upscaling of a recycled water scheme in Sabadell, Spain. We reviewed policy documents, conducted a set of 21 semi-structured interviews, and attended two policy meetings about the subject. Our results suggest that Sabadell meets the required conditions for upscaling reused water to a certain extent. However, a public forum is not well-developed. We discuss the implications of this and conclude with some suggestions for future research and some lessons for other cities that plan to upscale their recycled water schemes. © 2018 by the authors.

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