Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species

Liu D., Ogaya R., Barbeta A., Yang X., Peñuelas J. (2015) Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species. Global Change Biology. 21: 4196-4209.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/gcb.13029

Abstract:

Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition, dominance, and stand density) may be reordered when a certain drought threshold is reached. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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Isotope-ratio infrared spectroscopy: A reliable tool for the investigation of plant-water sources?

Martin-Gomez P., Barbeta A., Voltas J., Penuelas J., Dennis K., Palacio S., Dawson T.E., Ferrio J.P. (2015) Isotope-ratio infrared spectroscopy: A reliable tool for the investigation of plant-water sources?. New Phytologist. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/nph.13376

Abstract:

Summary: Stable isotopes are extensively used as tracers for the study of plant-water sources. Isotope-ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) offers a cheaper alternative to isotope-ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS), but its use in studying plant and soil water is limited by the spectral interference caused by organic contaminants. Here, we examine two approaches to cope with contaminated samples in IRIS: on-line oxidation of organic compounds (MCM) and post-processing correction. We assessed these methods compared to IRMS across 136 samples of xylem and soil water, and a set of ethanol- and methanol-water mixtures. A post-processing correction significantly improved IRIS accuracy in both natural samples and alcohol dilutions, being effective with concentrations up to 8% of ethanol and 0.4% of methanol. MCM outperformed the post-processing correction in removing methanol interference, but did not effectively remove interference for high concentrations of ethanol. By using both approaches, IRIS can overcome with reasonable accuracy the analytical uncertainties associated with most organic contaminants found in soil and xylem water. We recommend the post-processing correction as the first choice for analysis of samples of unknown contamination. Nevertheless, MCM can be more effective for evaluating samples containing contaminants responsible for strong spectral interferences at low concentrations, such as methanol. © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

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Satellite data as indicators of tree biomass growth and forest dieback in a Mediterranean holm oak forest

Ogaya R., Barbeta A., Basnou C., Penuelas J. (2015) Satellite data as indicators of tree biomass growth and forest dieback in a Mediterranean holm oak forest. Annals of Forest Science. 72: 135-144.
Link
Doi: 10.1007/s13595-014-0408-y

Abstract:

• Context: In the framework of climate change, decreased tree growth and enhanced mortality induced by hot and dry conditions are increasing in many forests around the world, and particularly in Mediterranean forests.• Aims: Our aim was to estimate tree growth and mortality in a Mediterranean holm oak forest, using remote sensing data from MODIS.• Methods: We monitored annual increases of aboveground biomass by measuring tree basal area, and we determined tree mortality by counting dead stems. We analyzed the relationships between forest growth and mortality with mean annual values of some MODIS products and meteorological data.• Results: Mortality and increases of aboveground biomass correlated well with precipitation, September standardized precipitation/evapotranspiration indices (SPEI), and some MODIS products such as NDVI and enhanced vegetation index EVI. Other MODIS products such as gross primary production (GPP) and net photosynthesis, however, showed no clear relationship with tree mortality or measured increases of biomass.• Conclusion: The MODIS products as proxies of ecosystemic productivity (gross primary productivity, net photosynthesis) were weakly correlated with biomass increase, and did not reflect the mortality following the drought of autumn 2011. Nevertheless, NDVI and EVI were efficient indicators of forest productivity and dieback. © 2014, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.

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