Baumann P., Hirschorn E., Maso J., Merticariu V., Misev D. (2018) All in One: Encoding spatio-temporal big data in XML, JSON, and RDF without information loss. Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2017. 2018-January: 1-10.LinkDoi: 10.1109/BigData.2017.8258326
With the unprecedented availability of continuously observed and generated data there is a likewise unprecedented potential for new and timely insights; yet, benefits are not fully leveraged as of today. The plethora of formats in combination with heterogeneous services remains is an obstacle-e.g., image services prefer binary formats, SPARQL endpoints like to think in RDF triples, and browsers integrate JSON data smoothly. We propose a model-based multi-encoding approach for overcoming the limitations of individual formats while still supporting their use. Concretely, this approach is being followed by the OGC Coverage Implementation Schema (CIS) standard which establishes a concrete, interoperable data model unifying n-D spatiotemporal regular and irregular grids, point clouds, and meshes. We describe how independence from data formats is achieved, in particular for three practically relevant formats-XML, JSON, and RDF-, thereby fostering integration of hitherto rather separate application domains. © 2017 IEEE.
Masó J., Zabala A., Serral I., Pons X. (2018) Remote sensing analytical geospatial operations directly in the web browser. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives. 42: 475-482.LinkDoi: 10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-403-2018
Closa, G., Masó, J., Proß, B., Pons, X. (2017) W3C PROV to describe provenance at the dataset, feature and attribute levels in a distributed environment. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. 64: 103-117.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2017.01.008
Baumann P., Hirschorn E., Maso J., Dumitru A., Merticariu V. (2016) Taming twisted cubes. 3rd International ACM SIGMOD Workshop on Managing and Mining Enriched Geo-Spatial Data, GeoRich 2016 - In conjunction with SIGMOD 2016. : 1-6.LinkDoi: 10.1145/2948649.2948650
Spatio-temporal grid data form a core structure in Earth and Space sciences alike. While Array Databases have set out to support this information category they only offer integer indexing, correspond-ing to equidistant grids. However, often grids in reality have irreg-ular structures, such as raw satellite swath data. We present an approach to modeling spatio-temporal regular and non-regular grids in a coherent manner, suitable for querying, transporting, and storing such data while remaining format indep-endent. We briefly describe an implementation based on the com-bination of a relational and an array DBMS. Our model is curr-ently under adoption as an international standard by OGC and ISO. © 2016 ACM.
Pons, X., Masó, J. (2016) A comprehensive open package format for preservation and distribution of geospatial data and metadata. Computers and Geosciences. 97: 89-97.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.cageo.2016.09.001
Blower J.D., Masó J., Díaz D., Roberts C.J., Griffiths G.H., Lewis J.P., Yang X., Pons X. (2015) Communicating thematic data quality with web map services. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 4: 1965-1981.LinkDoi: 10.3390/ijgi4041965
Geospatial information of many kinds, from topographic maps to scientific data, is increasingly being made available through web mapping services. These allow georeferenced map images to be served from data stores and displayed in websites and geographic information systems, where they can be integrated with other geographic information. The Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Service (WMS) standard has been widely adopted in diverse communities for sharing data in this way. However, current services typically provide little or no information about the quality or accuracy of the data they serve. In this paper we will describe the design and implementation of a new "quality-enabled" profile of WMS, which we call "WMS-Q". This describes how information about data quality can be transmitted to the user through WMS. Such information can exist at many levels, from entire datasets to individual measurements, and includes the many different ways in which data uncertainty can be expressed. We also describe proposed extensions to the Symbology Encoding specification, which include provision for visualizing uncertainty in raster data in a number of different ways, including contours, shading and bivariate colour maps. We shall also describe new open-source implementations of the new specifications, which include both clients and servers. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Kresse W., Pau J.M. (2015) Development of an ISO-standard for the preservation of geospatial data and metadata: ISO 19165. Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation. 2015: 449-456.LinkDoi: 10.1127/pfg/2015/0278
Most of the paper maps produced a century ago are still very accessible in cartographic libraries preserved by the producer. It is our present obligation to guarantee the preservation of digital geospatial data today and allow for digital cartographic accessibility one century into the future. In addition, there is an increasing demand for older maps that goes beyond pure historical interest motivated by the study of dynamic problems such as impacts of the climate change, human activities and sustainability. The long-term preservation of large volumes of geospatial data in a uniform way still remains an unsolved question. A systematic solution has been demanded by National Mapping and Archival Agencies in Europe and North America. One year ago the ISO/TC 211 "Geographic information /Geomatics" published a New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) named ISO 19165 "Preservation of digital data and metadata" accompanied by a Working Draft document. The proposed standard is built upon the principles laid down in the ISO 14721 "Open Archival Information Systems" and upon thedatamodehofthe ISO 19115-1 "Metadata - Part 1: Fundamentals". This article reports on the specialization of both standards for the purpose of archiving of geospatial data and asks for contributions to the ISO 19165 under development. © 2015 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.
Ménard L., Nüst D., Ngo K.-M., Blanc P., Jirka S., Masó J., Ranchin T., Wald L. (2015) Interoperable Exchange of Surface Solar Irradiance Observations: A Challenge. Energy Procedia. 76: 113-120.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.867
We present how implementations of the Sensor Web Enablement framework of the Open Geospatial Consortium are integrated into an existing spatial data infrastructure. The result is registered as a community portal for professionals in solar energy in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, demonstrating the benefits of interoperable exchange of in-situ time-series observations of surface solar irradiation. Easy access to, and sharing of data improves the information base for planning and monitoring of solar power resources. Providing users with visualization and download functionality for in-situ measurements is a key aspect for engaging the energy community to share, release and integrate in-situ measurements. © 2015 The Authors.
Díaz P., Masó J. (2014) Social networks and internet communities in the field of geographic information and their role in open data government initiatives. Open Source Technology: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. 4-4: 1586-1618.LinkDoi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7230-7.ch081
Users are playing an increasingly relevant role in geospatial data production. The traditional procedure for creating cartography, mainly by experts in official mapping agencies, has evolved into a more participative process for generating data: neogeography. Technology and the Internet are now user-friendly for a wide range of people who have become active users of global networks, such as GEOSS, INSPIRE, Eye On Earth, and EarthCube, and official producers need to adapt to the new era of openness, collaboration, and hybrid maps by adopting open standards. Although the creation of geospatial information is notably growing worldwide, and is enhanced by user-generated content, we may wonder whether this is a feasible alternative to official cartography. This chapter reviews the main geospatial networks based on both bottom-up and top-down data creation approaches, as well as the potentialities and limitations of user-generated content in the scientific field and in decision-making organisms. © 2015, IGI Global. All rights reserved.
Maso J., Pons X., Zabala A. (2014) Building the World Wide Hypermap (WWH) with a RESTful architecture. International Journal of Digital Earth. 7: 175-193.LinkDoi: 10.1080/17538947.2012.669414
The hypermap concept was introduced in 1992 as a way to hyperlink geospatial features to text, multimedia or other geospatial features. Since then, the concept has been used in several applications, although it has been found to have some limitations. On the other hand, Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) adopt diverse and heterogeneous service oriented architectures (SOAs). They are developed by different standard bodies and are generally disconnected from mass market web solutions. This work expands the hypermap concept to overcome its limitations and harmonise it with geospatial resource oriented architecture (ROA), connecting it to the semantic web and generalising it to the World Wide Hypermap (WWH) as a tool for building a single 'Digital Earth'. Global identifiers, dynamic links, link purposes and resource management capabilities are introduced as a solution that orchestrates data, metadata and data access services in a homogeneous way. This is achieved by providing a set of rules using the current Internet paradigm formalised in the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) architecture and combining it with existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. A reference implementation is also presented and the strategies needed to implement the WWH, which mainly consist in a set of additions to current Geographic Information System (GIS) products and a RESTful server that mediates between the Internet and the local GIS applications. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.
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