De Cáceres M., Coll L., Legendre P., Allen R.B., Wiser S.K., Fortin M.-J., Condit R., Hubbell S. (2019) Trajectory analysis in community ecology. Ecological Monographs. : 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1002/ecm.1350
Ecologists have long been interested in how communities change over time. Addressing questions about community dynamics requires ways of representing and comparing the variety of dynamics observed across space. Until now, most analytical frameworks have been based on the comparison of synchronous observations across sites and between repeated surveys. An alternative perspective considers community dynamics as trajectories in a chosen space of community resemblance and utilizes trajectories as objects to be analyzed and compared using their geometry. While methods that take this second perspective exist, for example to test for particular trajectory shapes, there is a need for formal analytical frameworks that fully develop the potential of this approach. By adapting concepts and procedures used for the analysis of spatial trajectories, we present a framework for describing and comparing community trajectories. A key element of our contribution is the means to assess the geometric resemblance between trajectories, which allows users to describe, quantify, and analyze variation in community dynamics. We illustrate the behavior of our framework using simulated data and two spatiotemporal community data sets differing in the community properties of interest (species composition vs. size distribution of individuals). We conclude by evaluating the advantages and limitations of our community trajectory analysis framework, highlighting its broad domain of application and anticipating potential extensions. © 2019 by the Ecological Society of America
Cabon A., Martínez-Vilalta J., Martínez de Aragón J., Poyatos R., De Cáceres M. (2018) Applying the eco-hydrological equilibrium hypothesis to model root distribution in water-limited forests. Ecohydrology. : 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1002/eco.2015
Drought is a key driver of vegetation dynamics, but plant water-uptake patterns and consequent plant responses to drought are poorly understood at large spatial scales. The capacity of vegetation to use soil water depends on its root distribution (RD). However, RD is extremely variable in space and difficult to measure in the field, which hinders accurate predictions of water fluxes and vegetation dynamics. We propose a new method to estimate RD within water balance models, assuming that vegetation is at eco-hydrological equilibrium (EHE). EHE conditions imply that vegetation optimizes RD such that transpiration is maximized within the limits of bearable drought stress, characterized here by species-specific hydraulic thresholds. Optimized RD estimates were validated against RD estimates obtained by model calibration from sap flow or soil moisture from 38 forest plots in Catalonia (NE Spain). In water-limited plots, optimized RD was similar to calibrated RD, but estimates diverged with higher water availability, suggesting that the EHE may not be assumed when water is not limiting. Thereafter, we applied the optimization procedure at the regional scale, to estimate RD for the water-limited forests of Catalonia. Regional variations of optimum RD reproduced many expected patterns in response to climate, soil physical properties, forest structure, and species hydraulic traits. We conclude that RD optimization, based on the EHE hypothesis and a simple description of plant hydraulics, produces realistic estimates of RD that can be used for model parameterization and shows promise to improve our ability to forecast vegetation dynamics under increased drought. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
De Cáceres M. (2018) Sobre el intercambio de datos de vegetación: El estándar ‘Veg-X’ y el paquete de R ‘VegX’. Ecosistemas. 27: 128-129.LinkDoi: 10.7818/ECOS.1570
[No abstract available]
De Cáceres M., Franklin S.B., Hunter J.T., Landucci F., Dengler J., Roberts D.W. (2018) Global overview of plot-based vegetation classification approaches. Phytocoenologia. 48: 101-112.LinkDoi: 10.1127/phyto/2018/0256
While classification of vegetation can be conducted in many ways, international homogenization of procedures and typologies is desirable for human societies that are highly connected in terms of sharing biodiversity information. This Special Issue of Phytocoenologia includes 12 papers that document several of the plot-based classification approaches currently used throughout the world. The issue includes approaches from five continents, but noticeable gaps are South America, middle-eastern countries, northern Africa and southeastern Asia. We include in this editorial a brief synthesis of the papers included in the Special Issue, with respect to (1) the amount of vegetation-plot data and characteristics of the classification systems developed in different areas and (2) the concepts and procedures of classification approaches. One of the most important common attributes among the classification approaches is the need to define vegetation units at a low level of abstraction. 'Association' (and perhaps 'alliance' too) may be a classification level for which international homogenization of procedures would be most easy to achieve, perhaps establishing different consistent classification sections depending on ecological conditions. Several papers in this issue demonstrate that multiple approaches may coexist for higher levels, as long as they abstract vegetation from the same low level units by focusing on a specific set of concepts and defined from the perspective of applications. © 2017 Gebrüder Borntraeger, 70176 Stuttgart, Germany.
De Cáceres M., Martin-StPaul N., Turco M., Cabon A., Granda V. (2018) Estimating daily meteorological data and downscaling climate models over landscapes. Environmental Modelling and Software. 108: 186-196.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.08.003
High-resolution meteorological data are necessary to understand and predict climate-driven impacts on the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the spatial resolution of climate reanalysis data and climate model outputs is often too coarse for studies at local/landscape scales. Additionally, climate model projections usually contain important biases, requiring the application of statistical corrections. Here we present ‘meteoland’ an R package that integrates several tools to facilitate the estimation of daily weather over landscapes, both under current and future conditions. The package contains functions: (1) to interpolate daily weather including topographic effects; and (2) to correct the biases of a given weather series (e.g., climate model outputs). We illustrate and validate the functions of the package using weather station data from Catalonia (NE Spain), re-analysis data and climate model outputs for a specific county. We conclude with a discussion of current limitations and potential improvements of the package. © 2018
Karavani, A., De Cáceres, M., Martínez de Aragón, J., Bonet, J.A., de-Miguel, S. (2018) Effect of climatic and soil moisture conditions on mushroom productivity and related ecosystem services in Mediterranean pine stands facing climate change. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 248: 432-440.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.10.024
Roces-Díaz J.V., Vayreda J., Banqué-Casanovas M., Cusó M., Anton M., Bonet J.A., Brotons L., De Cáceres M., Herrando S., Martínez de Aragón J., de-Miguel S., Martínez-Vilalta J. (2018) Assessing the distribution of forest ecosystem services in a highly populated Mediterranean region. Ecological Indicators. 93: 986-997.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.05.076
Forest ecosystems provide a wide range of goods and services to society and host high levels of biodiversity. Nevertheless, forest ecosystem services (ES) are often quantified and assessed using simplified methodologies (e.g., proxy methods based exclusively on Land Use Land Cover maps) that introduce substantial uncertainty in the analysis by ignoring, for instance, the species composition and spatial configuration of the ecosystems studied. In this work we defined and calculated a set of 12 indicators of several ES for the forests of the highly populated region of Catalonia (North-eastern Iberian Peninsula). The indicators combined different sources of information such as forest surveys, ecological model predictions and official statistics, but also included additional land cover information. All ES indicators were aggregated at the municipality level to compare their values and distribution patterns. We assessed spatial trade-offs and synergies among ES, as well as their relationships with a set of socioeconomic, climatic and biodiversity variables using correlation analyses and mixed-effects models. The results suggest a clustering of provisioning and regulating ES in mountainous zones towards the North of the study area. These two types of services showed a high degree of spatial similarity and presented high positive correlations. In contrast, cultural ES showed a more scattered pattern, which included lower elevation areas in the South of the study region. Climatic conditions were the main determinants of the spatial variability in the supply of the different ES, with most indicators being positively associated with precipitation and negatively associated with temperature. In addition, biodiversity (particularly woody species richness) showed positive relations with most of these ES, while socioeconomic variables (such as population density and the percentage employment in agriculture) showed negative associations with most of them. The combination of information from different data sources (including primary data) allowed for a detailed analysis of forest ES, likely removing some of the problems derived from approaches based only on proxy methods. In addition, the use of municipalities as study unit makes results directly relevant to management and planning strategies operating at this scale (e.g., forest management and planning). © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Ameztegui A., Cabon A., De Cáceres M., Coll L. (2017) Managing stand density to enhance the adaptability of Scots pine stands to climate change: A modelling approach. Ecological Modelling. 356: 141-150.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.04.006
In the Mediterranean region most climatic forecasts predict longer and more intense drought periods that can affect tree growth and mortality over broad geographic regions. One of the silvicultural treatments that has gained currency to lessen the impacts of climatic change is the reduction of stand density by thinning. However, we lack information on how the response of forest stands to different thinning treatments will be affected by climate change, and on the post-thinning temporal dynamics of water balance, specifically blue and green water. We adopted a modelling approach to explore the long-term effects of different thinning intensities on forest dynamics and water balance under climate change scenarios, coupling an individual-based model of forest dynamics (SORTIE-ND) with a mechanistic model of soil moisture dynamics and plant drought stress. We used as a case study three Scots pine plots across a gradient of climatic conditions, and we assessed the effect of site, three climatic scenarios and eight thinning intensities on tree growth, stand productivity, tree drought stress and blue water. The best thinning intensity in terms of stand productivity was obtained when between 20 and 40% of the basal area was removed, whereas the final stand stock rapidly decreased at higher thinning intensities. Moreover, the decrease in final basal area occurred at lower thinning intensities the drier the site conditions. Moderate and heavy thinnings (>30%) doubled basal area increment (BAI) of the following years in all the plots, although the effect vanished after 30–40 years, independently of the site and climate scenario. As expected, thinning was simulated to have an overall positive effect on the blue water yield and tree water status, which increased and also tended to last longer for higher thinning intensities. However, the magnitude of this effect on tree water status was most dependent on the site and climatic scenario, as drier conditions generally raised stronger and longer lasting reductions in drought stress for a given thinning intensity. Furthermore, our results highlight the existence of a site- and climate-dependent trade-off between the gain in stand productivity and the improvement in tree water status obtained by thinning, particularly for moderate or heavy thinning intensities. Our simulations suggest that thinning is a useful management tool to mitigate climate change but strongly argue against the application of general recipes across sites and appeals for carefully taking into consideration local climatic trajectories for management planning. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Aquilué, N., De Cáceres, M., Fortin, M.-J., Fall, A., Brotons, L. (2017) A spatial allocation procedure to model land-use/land-cover changes: Accounting for occurrence and spread processes. Ecological Modelling. 344: 73-86.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2016.11.005
Batllori E., Dećaceres M., Brotons L., Ackerly D.D., Moritz M.A., Lloret F. (2017) Cumulative effects of fire and drought in Mediterranean ecosystems. Ecosphere. 8: 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1002/ecs2.1906
The occurrence of multiple disturbances can jointly affect the recovery capacity of ecosystems, potentially leading to changes in vegetation dynamics or loss of resilience. The effects of interacting disturbances on ecosystems are, however, not well understood. We use a model system based on Mediterraneantype ecosystems (MTEs) to examine how the interplay between vegetation regeneration traits and compound, stochastic disturbances modulate ecosystem dynamics. We developed a state-and-transition simulation model including two tree species with contrasting regeneration strategies (seeder vs. resprouter) and a shrubland formation. We aim to assess potential compositional switches under contrasted scenarios of compound fire-drought regimes, and to characterize the cumulative effects of fire-drought (synergism vs. antagonism) relative to the effects of individual disturbance regimes. Our simulation results indicate that interaction between moderate fire and sporadic drought recurrence-as opposed to chronic dryness-can act as a strong mechanism generating highly heterogeneous landscapes in which different regeneration types coexist, as observed in MTEs. Resprouters dominated under individual, moderate disturbance regimes of fire or drought, whereas the interaction of the two disturbances promoted the longterm coexistence of both tree regeneration strategies. However, shrubland expansion and persistence at the expanse of forests was favored by increases in drought recurrence and associated fire-drought interactions, highlighting the potential for important vegetation changes in MTEs under climate change. Overall, the cumulative effects of fire and drought can lead to distinct landscape configurations under moderate disturbance regimes that are otherwise only attained under high frequency of individual disturbances. At the ecosystem level, however, we suggest that disturbance-induced vegetation dynamics can modify vegetation sensitivity and resilience to further disturbances precluding the prevalence of synergistic effects of the two disturbances. © 2017 Batllori et al.
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