Osorio-Canadas, S., Arnan, X., Rodrigo, A., Torné-Noguera, A., Molowny, R., Bosch, J. (2016) Body size phenology in a regional bee fauna: A temporal extension of Bergmann's rule. Ecology Letters. : 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1111/ele.12687
Osorio S., Arnan X., Bassols E., Vicens N., Bosch J. (2015) Local and landscape effects in a host-parasitoid interaction network along a forest-cropland gradient. Ecological Applications. 25: 1869-1879.LinkDoi: 10.1890/14-2476.1
Land-use driven habitat modification is a major driver of biodiversity loss and impoverishment of interaction diversity. This may affect ecosystem services such as pollination and biological control. Our objective is to analyze the effects of local (nesting environment: farms vs. tree stands) and landscape (forest-cropland gradient) factors on the structure and composition of a cavity-nesting bee-wasp (CNBW) community, their nests associates (henceforth parasitoids), and their interactions. We set up 24 nest-trapping stations in a fragmented, extensively farmed area of ∼100 km2. We obtained 2035 nests containing 7572 brood cells representing 17 bee and 18 wasp species, attacked by 20 parasitoid species. Community structure and composition, as well as network structure, were much more dependent on local than on landscape factors. Host abundance and richness were higher in farms. In addition, host abundance was positively correlated to cropland cover. We also found highly significant differences between nesting environments in host community composition. Structure and composition of the parasitoid community were conditioned by the structure and composition of the host community. Network structure was affected by nesting environment but not by landscape factors. Interactions tended to be more diverse in farms. This result was mostly explained by differences in network size (greater in farms). However, generality was significantly higher in farms even after controlling for network size, indicating that differences in species' interaction patterns associated to differences in community composition between the two nesting environments are also affecting network structure. In conclusion, open habitats associated with extensively farmed exploitations favor local CNBW diversity (especially bees) and result in more complex host-parasitoid interaction networks in comparison to forested areas. The conservation value of this kind of open habitat is important in view of the progressive abandonment of extensively cultivated farmland taking place in Europe at the expense of agricultural intensification and reforestation. © 2015 by the Ecological Society of America.
Torné-Noguera A., Rodrigo A., Osorio S., Bosch J. (2015) Collateral effects of beekeeping: Impacts on pollen-nectar resources and wild bee communities. Basic and Applied Ecology. : 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.baae.2015.11.004
Due to the contribution of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to wild flower and crop pollination, beekeeping has traditionally been considered a sustainable practice. However, high honey bee densities may have an impact on local pollen and nectar availability, which in turn may negatively affect other pollinators. This is exacerbated by the ability of honey bees to recruit foragers to highly rewarding flower patches. We measured floral resource consumption in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in 21 plots located at different distances from apiaries in the scrubland of Garraf Natural Park (Barcelona), and related these measures to visitation rates of honey bees, bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and other pollinators. In the same plots, we measured flower density, and used pan traps to characterize the wild bee community. Flower resource consumption was largely explained by honey bee visitation and marginally by bumblebee visitation. After accounting for flower density, plots close to apiaries had lower wild bee biomass. This was due to a lower abundance of large bee species, those more likely to be affected by honey bee competition. We conclude that honey bees are the main contributors to pollen/nectar consumption of the two main flowering plants in the scrubland, and that at the densities currently occurring in the park (3.5hives/km2) the wild bee community is being affected. Our study supports the hypothesis that high honey bee densities may have an impact on other pollinators via competition for flower resources. Wegen des Beitrages der Honigbiene (Apis mellifera) bei der Bestäubung von Wildblumen und Nutzpflanzen wurde die Bienenhaltung traditionell als eine nachhaltige Aktivität angesehen. Indessen können hohe Honigbienendichten Auswirkungen auf die lokale Verfügbarkeit von Nektar und Pollen haben, was wiederum andere Bestäuber negativ beeinflussen könnte. Dies wird verstärkt durch die Fähigkeit der Honigbiene, Sammlerinnen zu lohnenden Sammelstellen zu dirigieren. Im Buschland des Garraf-Naturparks bei Barcelona maßen wir den Verbrauch von Blütenressourcen an Rosmarin (Rosmarinus officinalis) und Thymian (Thymus vulgaris) an 21 Standorten, die unterschiedlich weit von Bienenständen entfernt lagen, und setzten diese Werte in Bezug zu den Besuchsraten von Honigbienen, Hummeln (Bombus terrestris) und sonstigen Bestäubern. An den gleichen Standorten bestimmten wir die Blütendichte und setzten Farbschalen ein, um die Wildbienengemeinschaft zu erfassen. Die Nutzung der Blüt enressou wurde weitgehend durch die Besuchsraten der Honigbiene erklärt und in geringfügigem Maße durch Hummelbesuch. Nach Berücksichtigung der Blütendichte wiesen Standorte in der Nähe von Bienenständen eine geringere Wildbienen-Biomasse auf. Dies war auf eine geringere Abundanz der großen Wildbienenarten zurückzuführen, also der Arten, die wahrscheinlich durch die Konkurrenz der Honigbiene beeinträchtigt werden. Wir schließen, dass Honigbienen den größten Beitrag zum Pollen- bzw. Nektarverbrauch bei den beiden wichtigsten Blütenpflanzen des Gebietes leisten und dass die Wildbienengemeinschaft bei den gegenwärtigen Honigbienendichten im Park (3.5 Völker/km2) beeinflusst wird. Unsere Untersuchung unterstützt die Hypothese, dass hohe Honigbienendichten durch Konkurrenz um Blütenressourcen einen Einfluss auf andere Bestäuber haben könnten. © 2015 Gesellschaft für Ökologie.
Torne-Noguera A., Rodrigo A., Arnan X., Osorio S., Barril-Graells H., Da Rocha-Filho L.C., Bosch J. (2014) Determinants of spatial distribution in a bee community: Nesting resources, flower resources, and body size. PLoS ONE. 9: 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097255
Understanding biodiversity distribution is a primary goal of community ecology. At a landscape scale, bee communities are affected by habitat composition, anthropogenic land use, and fragmentation. However, little information is available on local-scale spatial distribution of bee communities within habitats that are uniform at the landscape scale. We studied a bee community along with floral and nesting resources over a 32 km2 area of uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. Our objectives were (i) to analyze floral and nesting resource composition at the habitat scale. We ask whether these resources follow a geographical pattern across the scrubland at bee-foraging relevant distances; (ii) to analyze the distribution of bee composition across the scrubland. Bees being highly mobile organisms, we ask whether bee composition shows a homogeneous distribution or else varies spatially. If so, we ask whether this variation is irregular or follows a geographical pattern and whether bees respond primarily to flower or to nesting resources; and (iii) to establish whether body size influences the response to local resource availability and ultimately spatial distribution. We obtained 6580 specimens belonging to 98 species. Despite bee mobility and the absence of environmental barriers, our bee community shows a clear geographical pattern. This pattern is mostly attributable to heterogeneous distribution of small (<55 mg) species (with presumed smaller foraging ranges), and is mostly explained by flower resources rather than nesting substrates. Even then, a large proportion (54.8%) of spatial variability remains unexplained by flower or nesting resources. We conclude that bee communities are strongly conditioned by local effects and may exhibit spatial heterogeneity patterns at a scale as low as 500-1000 m in patches of homogeneous habitat. These results have important implications for local pollination dynamics and spatial variation of plant-pollinator networks. © 2014 Torné-Noguera et al.
Bosch J, Osorio S (2008) Trap-nesting as a methodology for the study of solitary bee ecology and behavior. Proceedings of the VIII Encontro sobre Abelhas. Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. July 2008.
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