Heterópteros de un cultivo ecológico de cítricos en Tarragona.

Ribes J, Piñol J, Espadaler X, Cañellas N (2004) Heterópteros de un cultivo ecológico de cítricos en Tarragona. Orsis 19:21-35.

Seed predation of the tussock-grass Stipa tenacissima L. by ants (Messor spp.) in southeastern Spain: The adaptive value of trypanocarpy

Schöning C., Espadaler X., Hensen I., Roces F. (2004) Seed predation of the tussock-grass Stipa tenacissima L. by ants (Messor spp.) in southeastern Spain: The adaptive value of trypanocarpy. Journal of Arid Environments. 56: 43-61.
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Doi: 10.1016/S0140-1963(03)00024-7

Abstract:

Seed predation by animals has been shown to be an important factor in the evolution of dispersal mechanisms and diaspore morphology of plants. We studied seed production and predation of the perennial tussock-grass Stipa tenacissima L. in "El Desierto", a semi-desert area in south-eastern Spain. As almost all other species in the genus, this plant produces diaspores with a long awn capable of hygroscopic movements that may lead to a drilling of the basal part of the diaspore into the soil substrate, to inserting into crevices or to lodging under rock fragments (trypanocarpy). Three species of granivorous ants (Messor barbarus, M. timidus, M. bouvieri) consume a substantial proportion of the seed production of S. tenacissima. We show in detail that the presence of the awn and the drilling mechanism of S. tenacissima reduce the intake rate of diaspores by Messor spp. dramatically. The long awn (mean overall length 56.8 mm) makes the diaspore cumbersome and heavier, so that it can only be retrieved much more slowly than a diaspore without the awn. Cutting of the awn by an ant requires a long time (mean 9.35 min) and small workers (head width

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Native and exotic ants of the Azores (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

Wetterer JK, Espadaler X, Wetterer AL, Cabral SGM (2004) Native and exotic ants of the Azores (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 44:1-19.

Primer registro de Myrmica karavakjevi (Arnoldi, 1930) en la Península Ibérica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

Espadaler X, Zabalegui I, Calvo F (2004) Primer registro de Myrmica karavakjevi (Arnoldi, 1930) en la Península Ibérica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Heteropterus 4:81-83.

Queen number in a supercolony of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus.

Espadaler X, Rey S, Bernal V (2004) Queen number in a supercolony of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus. Insectes Sociaux 51:232-238.

Phylogeny and biomics of Lasius austriacus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

Steiner FM, Schlick-Steiner BC, Schödl S, Espadaler X, Seifert B, Christian E, Stauffer C (2004) Phylogeny and biomics of Lasius austriacus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux 51:24-29.

The joint introduction of Platyarthus schoblii (Isopoda: oniscidea) and Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) into Hungary.

Tartally A, Hornung E, Espadaler X (2004) The joint introduction of Platyarthus schoblii (Isopoda: oniscidea) and Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) into Hungary. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 6:61-66.

The effect of ant predation on survival and mating frequency of the golden egg bug in field experiments (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

Miettinen M, Kaitala A, Espadaler X, Tannerfeldt M (2004) The effect of ant predation on survival and mating frequency of the golden egg bug in field experiments (Hymenoptera: Formicidae Heteroptera: Coreidae). Sociobiology 44:659-668.

Técnicas de cría en el laboratorio.

Espadaler X (2004) Técnicas de cría en el laboratorio. In Barrientos JA (ed) Curso práctico de entomología. Asociación española de Entomología-UAB. pp 103-111.