(2013) Ecometabolómica. Investigación y Ciéncia. : -.
Achotegui-Castells A., Sardans J., Ribas À., Peñuelas J. (2013) Identifying the origin of atmospheric inputs of trace elements in the Prades Mountains (Catalonia) with bryophytes, lichens, and soil monitoring. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 185: 615-629.LinkDoi: 10.1007/s10661-012-2579-z
The biomonitors Hypnum cupressiforme and Xanthoria parietina were used to assess the deposition of trace elements and their possible origin in the Prades Mountains, a protected Mediterranean forest area of NE Spain with several pollution sources nearby. Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 16 locations within this protected area. Soil trace element concentrations were also ascertained to calculate enrichment factors (EF) and use them to distinguish airborne from soilborne trace element inputs. In addition, lichen richness was measured to further assess atmospheric pollution. EF demonstrated to be useful not only for the moss but also for the lichen. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn presented values higher than three in both biomonitors. These trace elements were also the main ones emitted by the potential sources of pollutants. The distance between sampling locations and potential pollution sources was correlated with the concentrations of Cu, Sb, and Zn in the moss and with Cr, Ni, and Sb in the lichen. Lichen richness was negatively correlated with lichen Cu, Pb, and V concentrations on dry weight basis. The study reflected the remarkable influence that the pollution sources have on the presence of trace elements and on lichen species community composition in this natural area. The study highlights the value of combining the use of biomonitors, enrichment factors, and lichen diversity for pollution assessment to reach a better overview of both trace elements' impact and the localization of their sources. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Mulder C., Ahrestani F.S., Bahn M., Bohan D.A., Bonkowski M., Griffiths B.S., Guicharnaud R.A., Kattge J., Krogh P.H., Lavorel S., Lewis O.T., Mancinelli G., Naeem S., Penuelas J., Poorter H., Reich P.B., Rossi L., Rusch G.M., Sardans J., Wright I.J. (2013) Connecting the Green and Brown Worlds. Allometric and Stoichiometric Predictability of Above- and Below-Ground Networks. Advances in Ecological Research. 49: 69-175.LinkDoi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-420002-9.00002-0
We examine the potential of trait-based parameters of taxa for linking above- and below-ground ecological networks (hereafter 'green' and 'brown' worlds) to understand and predict community dynamics. This synthesis considers carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus-related traits, the abundance of component species and their size distribution across trophic levels under different forms of management. We have analysed existing and novel databases on plants, microbes and invertebrates that combine physico-chemical and biological information from (agro)ecosystems spanning the globe. We found (1) evidence that traits from above- and below-ground systems may be integrated in the same model and (2) a much greater than expected stoichiometric plasticity of plants and microbes which has implications for the entire food-web mass-abundance scaling. Nitrogen and phosphorus are primary basal resources (hence, drivers) and more retranslocation of P than of N from leaves will lead to higher N:P in the litter and soil organic matter. Thus, under nutrient-rich conditions, higher foliar concentrations of N and P are reflected by lower N:P in the brown litter, suggesting less P retranslocated than N. This apparent stoichiometric dichotomy between green and brown could result in shifts in threshold elemental ratios critical for ecosystem functioning. It has important implications for a general food-web model, given that resource C:N:P ratios are generally assumed to reflect environmental C:N:P ratios. We also provide the first evidence for large-scale allometric changes according to the stoichiometry of agroecosystems. Finally, we discuss insights that can be gained from integrating carbon and nitrogen isotope data into trait-based approaches, and address the origin of changes in δ13C and δ15N fractionation values in relation to consumer-resource body-mass ratios. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Penuelas J., Guenther A., Rapparini F., Llusia J., Filella I., Seco R., Estiarte M., Mejia-Chang M., Ogaya R., Ibanez J., Sardans J., Castano L.M., Turnipseed A., Duhl T., Harley P., Vila J., Estavillo J.M., Menendez S., Facini O., Baraldi R., Geron C., Mak J., Patton E.G., Jiang X., Greenberg J. (2013) Intensive measurements of gas, water, and energy exchange between vegetation and troposphere during the MONTES campaign in a vegetation gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Atmospheric Environment. 75: 348-364.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.04.032
MONTES ("Woodlands") was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at measuring energy, water and especially gas exchange between vegetation and atmosphere in a gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in NE Spain in the North Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The measurements were performed at a semidesertic area (Monegros), at a coastal Mediterranean shrubland area (Garraf), at a typical Mediterranean holm oak forest area (Prades) and at a wet temperate beech forest (Montseny) during spring (April 2010) under optimal plant physiological conditions in driest-warmest sites and during summer (July 2010) with drought and heat stresses in the driest-warmest sites and optimal conditions in the wettest-coolest site. The objective of this campaign was to study the differences in gas, water and energy exchange occurring at different vegetation coverages and biomasses. Particular attention was devoted to quantitatively understand the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) because of their biological and environmental effects in the WMB. A wide range of instruments (GC-MS, PTR-MS, meteorological sensors, O3 monitors,. .) and vertical platforms such as masts, tethered balloons and aircraft were used to characterize the gas, water and energy exchange at increasing footprint areas by measuring vertical profiles. In this paper we provide an overview of the MONTES campaign: the objectives, the characterization of the biomass and gas, water and energy exchange in the 4 sites-areas using satellite data, the estimation of isoprene and monoterpene emissions using MEGAN model, the measurements performed and the first results. The isoprene and monoterpene emission rates estimated with MEGAN and emission factors measured at the foliar level for the dominant species ranged from about 0 to 0.2mgm-2h-1 in April. The warmer temperature in July resulted in higher model estimates from about 0 to ca. 1.6mgm-2h-1 for isoprene and ca. 4.5mgm-2h-1 for monoterpenes, depending on the site vegetation and footprint area considered. There were clear daily and seasonal patterns with higher emission rates and mixing ratios at midday and summer relative to early morning and early spring. There was a significant trend in CO2 fixation (from 1 to 10mgCm-2d-1), transpiration (from1-5kgCm-2d-1), and sensible and latent heat from the warmest-driest to the coolest-wettest site. The results showed the strong land-cover-specific influence on emissions of BVOCs, gas, energy and water exchange, and therefore demonstrate the potential for feed-back to atmospheric chemistry and climate. •We present a multidisciplinary biosphere-atmosphere field campaign.•We measured a gradient from semi-desertic shrublands to wet temperate forests.•A wide range of instruments and vertical platforms were used.•Land cover strongly influenced emissions of BVOCs and gas, energy and water exchange.•Vegetation has strong potential for feed-back to atmospheric chemistry and climate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Penuelas J., Poulter B., Sardans J., Ciais P., Van Der Velde M., Bopp L., Boucher O., Godderis Y., Hinsinger P., Llusia J., Nardin E., Vicca S., Obersteiner M., Janssens I.A. (2013) Human-induced nitrogen-phosphorus imbalances alter natural and managed ecosystems across the globe. Nature Communications. 4: 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1038/ncomms3934
The availability of carbon from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and of nitrogen from various human-induced inputs to ecosystems is continuously increasing; however, these increases are not paralleled by a similar increase in phosphorus inputs. The inexorable change in the stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen relative to phosphorus has no equivalent in Earth's history. Here we report the profound and yet uncertain consequences of the human imprint on the phosphorus cycle and nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry for the structure, functioning and diversity of terrestrial and aquatic organisms and ecosystems. A mass balance approach is used to show that limited phosphorus and nitrogen availability are likely to jointly reduce future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. Further, if phosphorus fertilizers cannot be made increasingly accessible, the crop yields projections of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment imply an increase of the nutrient deficit in developing regions. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Penuelas J., Sardans J., Estiarte M., Ogaya R., Carnicer J., Coll M., Barbeta A., Rivas-Ubach A., Llusia J., Garbulsky M., Filella I., Jump A.S. (2013) Evidence of current impact of climate change on life: A walk from genes to the biosphere. Global Change Biology. 19: 2303-2338.LinkDoi: 10.1111/gcb.12143
We review the evidence of how organisms and populations are currently responding to climate change through phenotypic plasticity, genotypic evolution, changes in distribution and, in some cases, local extinction. Organisms alter their gene expression and metabolism to increase the concentrations of several antistress compounds and to change their physiology, phenology, growth and reproduction in response to climate change. Rapid adaptation and microevolution occur at the population level. Together with these phenotypic and genotypic adaptations, the movement of organisms and the turnover of populations can lead to migration toward habitats with better conditions unless hindered by barriers. Both migration and local extinction of populations have occurred. However, many unknowns for all these processes remain. The roles of phenotypic plasticity and genotypic evolution and their possible trade-offs and links with population structure warrant further research. The application of omic techniques to ecological studies will greatly favor this research. It remains poorly understood how climate change will result in asymmetrical responses of species and how it will interact with other increasing global impacts, such as N eutrophication, changes in environmental N : P ratios and species invasion, among many others. The biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks on climate of all these changes in vegetation are also poorly understood. We here review the evidence of responses to climate change and discuss the perspectives for increasing our knowledge of the interactions between climate change and life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Penuelas J., Sardans J., Llusia J., Silva J., Owen S.M., Bala-Ola B., Linatoc A.C., Dalimin M.N., Niinemets U. (2013) Foliar chemistry and standing folivory of early and late-successional species in a Bornean rainforest. Plant Ecology and Diversity. 6: 245-256.LinkDoi: 10.1080/17550874.2013.768713
Background: Few studies have investigated the chemical, morphological and physiological foliar traits and the intensity of standing folivory in a representative set of species of tropical rainforests including species of different successional stages. Aims: (i) To quantify leaf elemental composition, leaf phenolics and tannin concentrations, physical leaf traits and the intensity of standing folivory in a representative set of species of different successional stages in a Bornean tropical rainforest, and (ii) to investigate the relationships among leaf traits and between leaf traits and accumulated standing folivory. Methods: Analyses of leaf elemental concentrations, phenolics (Ph) and tannin (Tan) concentrations, leaf mass area (LMA), C assimilation rate and accumulated standing folivory in 88 common rainforest species of Borneo. Results and Conclusions: Accumulated standing folivory was correlated with the scores of the first axis of the elemental concentrations principal component analysis (mainly loaded by K and C:K and N:K ratios) with lower accumulated standing folivory at high leaf K concentrations (R = -0.33, P = 0.0016). The results show that consistent with growth rate hypothesis, fast-growing pioneer species have lower leaf N:P ratios than late-successional species, that species with higher leaf N concentration have lower LMA according with the 'leaf economics spectrum' hypothesis, and that species with lower leaf nutrient concentration allocate more C to leaf phenolics. This study also shows that species with different ecological roles have different biogeochemical 'niches' assessed as foliar elemental composition. © 2013 Copyright 2013 Botanical Society of Scotland and Taylor & Francis.
Rivas-Ubach A., Perez-Trujillo M., Sardans J., Gargallo-Garriga A., Parella T., Penuelas J. (2013) Ecometabolomics: Optimized NMR-based method. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 4: 464-473.LinkDoi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12028
Metabolomics is allowing great advances in biological sciences. Recently, an increasing number of ecological studies are using a metabolomic approach to answer ecological questions (ecometabolomics). Ecometabolomics is becoming a powerful tool which allows following the responses of the metabolome of an organism environmental changes and the comparison of populations. Some Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) protocols have been published for metabolomics analyses oriented to other disciplines such as biomedicine, but there is a lack of a description of a detailed protocol applied to ecological studies. Here we propose a NMR-based protocol for ecometabolomic studies that provides an unbiased overview of the metabolome of an organism, including polar and nonpolar metabolites. This protocol is aimed to facilitate the analysis of many samples, as typically required in ecological studies. In addition to NMR fingerprinting, it identifies metabolites for generating metabolic profiles applying strategies of elucidation of small molecules typically used in natural-product research, and allowing the identification of secondary and unknown metabolites. We also provide a detailed description to obtain the numerical data from the 1H-NMR spectra needed to perform the statistical analyses. We tested and optimized this protocol by using two field plant species (Erica multiflora and Quercus ilex) sampled once per season. Both species showed high levels of polar compounds such as sugars and amino acids during the spring, the growing season. E. multiflora was also experimentally submitted to drought and the NMR analyses were sensitive enough to detect some compounds related to the avoidance of water loses. This protocol has been designed for ecometabolomic studies. It identifies changes in the compositions of metabolites between individuals and detects and identifies biological markers associated with environmental changes. © 2013 The Authors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution © 2013 British Ecological Society.
Sardans J., Penuelas J. (2013) Tree growth changes with climate and forest type are associated with relative allocation of nutrients, especially phosphorus, to leaves and wood. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 22: 494-507.LinkDoi: 10.1111/geb.12015
Aim: To test our hypothesis that trees change the allocation and the proportion of different nutrients between leaves and wood to maximize growth along climatic gradients. Location: Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula. Methods: We tested the relationships of total forest nutrient content, stoichiometry and allocation between leaves and wood in trees with growth along environmental gradients using data from the Catalan Forest Inventory and a suite of multivariate mixed models, ANOVAs and principal components analyses. Results: The aboveground growth of trees and the nutrient content of leaves and wood were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP). The changes in C:nutrient ratios were proportionally higher in leaves than in wood, mainly in deciduous forests. Higher MAP was also related to a lower N:P content ratio in leaves and wood but was not related to a greater allocation of P than N in leaves relative to wood (N:PL/W). Conifers, which presented the highest relative aboveground growth, had the lowest N:PL/W (0.99 ± 0.02), whereas the slow-growing evergreens had the highest N:PL/W (2.26 ± 0.23). Main conclusions: In all forest types, growth was related to a higher allocation of nutrients to leaves than to wood, especially of P, coinciding with better climatic conditions for growth (higher MAP in this Mediterranean context). The highest rates of growth were linked to the lowest N:P ratios. The allocation of P relative to N in leaves is higher in conifers than in evergreen and deciduous trees. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sardans J., Penuelas J. (2013) Plant-soil interactions in Mediterranean forest and shrublands: Impacts of climatic change. Plant and Soil. 365: 1-33.LinkDoi: 10.1007/s11104-013-1591-6
Background: In the Mediterranean climate, plants have evolved under conditions of low soil-water and nutrient availabilities and have acquired a series of adaptive traits that, in turn exert strong feedback on soil fertility, structure, and protection. As a result, plant-soil systems constitute complex interactive webs where these adaptive traits allow plants to maximize the use of scarce resources. Scope: It is necessary to review the current bibliography to highlight the most know characteristic mechanisms underlying Mediterranean plant-soil feed-backs and identify the processes that merit further research in order to reach an understanding of the plant-soil feed-backs and its capacity to cope with future global change scenarios. In this review, we characterize the functional and structural plant-soil relationships and feedbacks in Mediterranean regions. We thereafter discuss the effects of global change drivers on these complex interactions between plants and soil. Conclusions: The large plant diversity that characterizes Mediterranean ecosystems is associated to the success of coexisting species in avoiding competition for soil resources by differential exploitation in space (soil layers) and time (year and daily). Among plant and soil traits, high foliar nutrient re-translocation and large contents of recalcitrant compounds reduce nutrient cycling. Meanwhile increased allocation of resources to roots and soil enzymes help to protect against soil erosion and to improve soil fertility and capacity to retain water. The long-term evolutionary adaptation to drought of Mediterranean plants allows them to cope with moderate increases of drought without significant losses of production and survival in some species. However, other species have proved to be more sensitive decreasing their growth and increasing their mortality under moderate rising of drought. All these increases contribute to species composition shifts. Moreover, in more xeric sites, the desertification resulting from synergic interactions among some related process such as drought increases, torrential rainfall increases and human driven disturbances is an increasing concern. A research priority now is to discern the effects of long-term increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, warming, and drought on soil fertility and water availability and on the structure of soil communities (e. g., shifts from bacteria to fungi) and on patching vegetation and root-water uplift (from soil to plant and from soil deep layers to soil superficial layers) roles in desertification. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
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