Peñuelas J, Sardans J, Stefanescu C, Parella T, Filella I (2007) Transferencia de defenses de les plantes als herbívors. UAB DIVULGA 05/2007.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J. (2007) Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest. Environmental Pollution. 147: 567-583.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.10.008
We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 g ha-1) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J. (2007) Drought changes phosphorus and potassium accumulation patterns in an evergreen Mediterranean forest. Functional Ecology. 21: 191-201.LinkDoi: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2007.01247.x
1. Climate models predict more extreme weather in Mediterranean ecosystems, with more frequent drought periods and torrential rainfall. These expected changes may affect major process in ecosystems such as mineral cycling. However, there is a lack of experimental data regarding the effects of prolonged drought on nutrient cycling and content in Mediterranean ecosystems. 2. A 6-year drought manipulation experiment was conducted in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest. The aim was to investigate the effects of drought conditions expected to occur over the coming decades, on the contents and concentrations of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in stand biomass, and P and K content and availability in soils. 3. Drought (an average reduction of 15% in soil moisture) increased P leaf concentration by 18.2% and reduced P wood and root concentrations (30.9% and 39.8%, respectively) in the dominant tree species Quercus ilex, suggesting a process of mobilization of P from wood towards leaves. The decrease in P wood concentrations in Quercus ilex, together with a decrease in forest biomass growth, led to an overall decrease (by approximately one-third) of the total P content in above-ground biomass. In control plots, the total P content in the above-ground biomass increased 54 kg ha-1 from 1999 to 2005, whereas in drought plots there was no increase in P levels in above-ground biomass. Drought had no effects on either K above-ground contents or concentrations. 4. Drought increased total soil soluble P by increasing soil soluble organic P, which is the soil soluble P not directly available to plant capture. Drought reduced the ratio of soil soluble inorganic P : soil soluble organic P by 50% showing a decrease of inorganic P release from P bound to organic matter. Drought increased by 10% the total K content in the soil, but reduced the soil soluble K by 20.4%. 5. Drought led to diminished plant uptake of mineral nutrients and to greater recalcitrance of minerals in soil. This will lead to a reduction in P and K in the ecosystem, due to losses in P and K through leaching and erosion, if the heavy rainfalls predicted by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) models occur. As P is currently a limiting factor in many Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems, and given that P and K are necessary for high water-use efficiency and stomata control, the negative effects of drought on P and K content in the ecosystem may well have additional indirect negative effects on plant fitness. © 2007 The Authors.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J., Estiarte M. (2007) Seasonal patterns of root-surface phosphatase activities in a Mediterranean shrubland. Responses to experimental warming and drought. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 43: 779-786.LinkDoi: 10.1007/s00374-007-0166-1
Mediterranean ecosystems are water limited and the current general circulation Models (GCM) and ecophysiological models forecast a warming and a further increase of drought in the next decades. A stronger water stress can decrease the capacity for nutrient absorption by plants. We conducted a field experiment to simulate forecasted drought and warming in a Mediterranean calcareous shrubland to assess the performance of root-surface phosphatase activities of the dominant shrub Globularia alypum. These enzyme activities were higher in autumn and spring, when the climate conditions were optimal for plant activity, than in summer or winter, when there was either lack of water or cold temperatures. A decrease in soil moisture in drought plots decreased root-surface phosphatase activity (29% in summer and 25% in autumn). The decrease in root-surface phosphatase activity in drought plots coincided with a decrease in P leaf concentrations and P accumulation in aboveground biomass and loss of photosynthetic capacity of some dominant shrub species of this ecosystem, and with a tendency to increase total soil-P. These results suggest that the expected drier conditions in this Mediterranean shrubland in the next decades will slow down the P uptake by plants, thereby, diminishing the P contents in biomass and increasing total P contents in soil in non-available forms and that this can be, in part, attributable to a result of the decrease in root-surface phosphatase activity. © 2007 Springer-Verlag.
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