Nutrient-rich plants emit a less intense blend of volatile isoprenoids

Fernández-Martínez M., Llusià J., Filella I., Niinemets Ü., Arneth A., Wright I.J., Loreto F., Peñuelas J. (2018) Nutrient-rich plants emit a less intense blend of volatile isoprenoids. New Phytologist. 220: 773-784.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/nph.14889

Abstract:

The emission of isoprenoids (e.g. isoprene and monoterpenes) by plants plays an important defensive role against biotic and abiotic stresses. Little is known, however, about the functional traits linked to species-specific variability in the types and rates of isoprenoids emitted and about possible co-evolution of functional traits with isoprenoid emission type (isoprene emitter, monoterpene emitter or both). We combined data for isoprene and monoterpene emission rates per unit dry mass with key functional traits (foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations, and leaf mass per area) and climate for 113 plant species, covering the boreal, wet temperate, Mediterranean and tropical biomes. Foliar N was positively correlated with isoprene emission, and foliar P was negatively correlated with both isoprene and monoterpene emission rate. Nonemitting plants generally had the highest nutrient concentrations, and those storing monoterpenes had the lowest concentrations. Our phylogenetic analyses found that the type of isoprenoid emission followed an adaptive, rather than a random model of evolution. Evolution of isoprenoids may be linked to nutrient availability. Foliar N and P are good predictors of the type of isoprenoid emission and the rate at which monoterpenes, and to a lesser extent isoprene, are emitted. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust

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Seasonal and diurnal variations of plant isoprenoid emissions from two dominant species in Mediterranean shrubland and forest submitted to experimental drought

Mu Z., Llusià J., Liu D., Ogaya R., Asensio D., Zhang C., Peñuelas J. (2018) Seasonal and diurnal variations of plant isoprenoid emissions from two dominant species in Mediterranean shrubland and forest submitted to experimental drought. Atmospheric Environment. 191: 105-115.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.08.010

Abstract:

We tested the effect of increasing drought conditions in the Mediterranean Basin on isoprenoid emissions for the coming decades by analyzing their effect experimentally on the dominant Mediterranean species Erica multiflora in a Garraf shrubland and Quercus ilex in a Prades forest in Catalonia (Spain). Drought was simulated in Garraf using automatically sliding curtains to decrease the amount of soil moisture by 5% and in Prades by partial rainfall exclusion and runoff exclusion for a 25% decrease. We measured photosynthetic rates (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and rates of isoprenoid emission in the morning and at midday for four seasons and determined the relationship of emission rates with environmental conditions. Terpenes were emitted by both species, but only E. multiflora emitted isoprene. α-Pinene and limonene were the most abundant terpenes. Isoprenoid emissions increased with air temperature and generally decreased as the amount of soil moisture increased. The results of this study suggest that higher isoprenoid emissions can be expected in the warmer and drier conditions predicted for the coming decades in the Mediterranean region. © 2018

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Thirsty tree roots exude more carbon

Preece C., Farré-Armengol G., Llusià J., Peñuelas J. (2018) Thirsty tree roots exude more carbon. Tree Physiology. 38: 690-695.
Link
Doi: 10.1093/treephys/tpx163

Abstract:

Root exudation is an important input of carbon into soils and affects plant and soil communities, but little is known about the effect of climatic factors such as drought on exudation, and its ability to recover. We studied the impact of increasing drought on root exudation and its subsequent recovery in the Mediterranean tree species Quercus ilex L. in a greenhouse study by measuring the amount of total organic carbon in exudates. The amount of exudation per unit root area increased with drought duration and was 21% higher under the most extreme drought scenario compared with the non-droughted control. The amount of root exudation did not differ between the treatments following 6 weeks of re-watering, indicating a strong capacity for recovery in this species. We concluded that drought could affect the amount of root exudation, which could in turn have a large impact on microbial activity in the rhizosphere, and alter these microbial communities, at least in the short term. This tree species may be able to return to normal levels of root exudation after a drought event, but long-term exudate-mediated impacts on Mediterranean forest soils may be an unforeseen effect of drought. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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