Andresen, L.C., Müller, C., de Dato, G., Dukes, J.S., Emmett, B.A., Estiarte, M., Jentsch, A., Kröel-Dulay, G., Lüscher, A., Niu, S., Peñuelas, J., Reich, P.B., Reinsch, S., Ogaya, R., Schmidt, I.K., Schneider, M.K., Sternberg, M., Tietema, A., Zhu, K., Bilton, M.C. (2016) Shifting Impacts of Climate Change: Long-Term Patterns of Plant Response to Elevated CO2, Drought, and Warming Across Ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research. : 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.07.001
Carey, J.C., Tang, J., Templer, P.H., Kroeger, K.D., Crowther, T.W., Burton, A.J., Dukes, J.S., Emmett, B., Frey, S.D., Heskel, M.A., Jiang, L., Machmuller, M.B., Mohan, J., Panetta, A.M., Reich, P.B., Reinschj, S., Wang, X., Allison, S.D., Bamminger, C., Bridgham, S., Collins, S.L., De Dato, G., Eddy, W.C., Enquist, B.J., Estiarte, M., Harte, J., Henderson, A., Johnson, B.R., Larsen, K.S., Luo, Y., Marhan, S., Melillo, J.M., Peñuelas, J., Pfeifer-Meister, L., Poll, C., Rastetter, E., Reinmann, A.B., Reynolds, L.L., Schmidt, I.K., Shaver, G.R., Strong, A.L., Suseela, V., Tietema, A. (2016) Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113: 13797-13802.LinkDoi: 10.1073/pnas.1605365113
Crowther, T.W., Todd-Brown, K.E.O., Rowe, C.W., Wieder, W.R., Carey, J.C., MacHmuller, M.B., Snoek, B.L., Fang, S., Zhou, G., Allison, S.D., Blair, J.M., Bridgham, S.D., Burton, A.J., Carrillo, Y., Reich, P.B., Clark, J.S., Classen, A.T., Dijkstra, F.A., Elberling, B., Emmett, B.A., Estiarte, M., Frey, S.D., Guo, J., Harte, J., Jiang, L., Johnson, B.R., Kroël-Dulay, G., Larsen, K.S., Laudon, H., Lavallee, J.M., Luo, Y., Lupascu, M., Ma, L.N., Marhan, S., Michelsen, A., Mohan, J., Niu, S., Pendall, E., Peñuelas, J., Pfeifer-Meister, L., Poll, C., Reinsch, S., Reynolds, L.L., Schmidt, I.K., Sistla, S., Sokol, N.W., Templer, P.H., Treseder, K.K., Welker, J.M., Bradford, M.A. (2016) Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming. Nature. 540: 104-108.LinkDoi: 10.1038/nature20150
Estiarte M., Vicca S., Peñuelas J., Bahn M., Beier C., Emmett B.A., Fay P.A., Hanson P.J., Hasibeder R., Kigel J., Kröel-Dulay G., Larsen K.S., Lellei-Kovács E., Limousin J.-M., Ogaya R., Ourcival J.-M., Reinsch S., Sala O.E., Schmidt I.K., Sternberg M., Tielbörger K., Tietema A., Janssens I.A. (2016) Few multiyear precipitation-reduction experiments find a shift in the productivity-precipitation relationship. Global Change Biology. : 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1111/gcb.13269
Well-defined productivity-precipitation relationships of ecosystems are needed as benchmarks for the validation of land models used for future projections. The productivity-precipitation relationship may be studied in two ways: the spatial approach relates differences in productivity to those in precipitation among sites along a precipitation gradient (the spatial fit, with a steeper slope); the temporal approach relates interannual productivity changes to variation in precipitation within sites (the temporal fits, with flatter slopes). Precipitation-reduction experiments in natural ecosystems represent a complement to the fits, because they can reduce precipitation below the natural range and are thus well suited to study potential effects of climate drying. Here, we analyse the effects of dry treatments in eleven multiyear precipitation-manipulation experiments, focusing on changes in the temporal fit. We expected that structural changes in the dry treatments would occur in some experiments, thereby reducing the intercept of the temporal fit and displacing the productivity-precipitation relationship downward the spatial fit. The majority of experiments (72%) showed that dry treatments did not alter the temporal fit. This implies that current temporal fits are to be preferred over the spatial fit to benchmark land-model projections of productivity under future climate within the precipitation ranges covered by the experiments. Moreover, in two experiments, the intercept of the temporal fit unexpectedly increased due to mechanisms that reduced either water loss or nutrient loss. The expected decrease of the intercept was observed in only one experiment, and only when distinguishing between the late and the early phases of the experiment. This implies that we currently do not know at which precipitation-reduction level or at which experimental duration structural changes will start to alter ecosystem productivity. Our study highlights the need for experiments with multiple, including more extreme, dry treatments, to identify the precipitation boundaries within which the current temporal fits remain valid. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lellei-Kovács, E., Botta-Dukát, Z., de Dato, G., Estiarte, M., Guidolotti, G., Kopittke, G.R., Kovács-Láng, E., Kröel-Dulay, G., Larsen, K.S., Peñuelas, J., Smith, A.R., Sowerby, A., Tietema, A., Schmidt, I.K. (2016) Temperature Dependence of Soil Respiration Modulated by Thresholds in Soil Water Availability Across European Shrubland Ecosystems. Ecosystems. 19: 1460-1477.LinkDoi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0016-9
Liu D., Llusia J., Ogaya R., Estiarte M., Llorens L., Yang X., Peñuelas J. (2016) Physiological adjustments of a Mediterranean shrub to long-term experimental warming and drought treatments. Plant Science. 252: 53-61.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2016.07.004
Warmer temperatures and extended drought in the Mediterranean Basin are becoming increasingly important in determining plant physiological processes and affecting the regional carbon budget. The responses of plant physiological variables such as shoot water potential (Ψ), carbon-assimilation rates (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) to these climatic regimes, however, are not well understood. We conducted long-term (16 years) field experiments with mild nocturnal warming (+0.6 °C) and drought (−20% soil moisture) in a Mediterranean early-successional shrubland. Warming treatment moderately influenced Ψ, A and gs throughout the sampling periods, whereas drought treatment strongly influenced these variables, especially during the summer. The combination of a natural drought in summer 2003 and the treatments significantly decreased A and iWUE. Foliar δ13C increased in the treatments relative to control, but not significantly. The values of Ψ, A and gs were correlated negatively with vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and positively with soil moisture and tended to be more dependent on the availability of soil water. The plant, however, also improved the acclimation to drier and hotter conditions by physiological adjustments (gs and iWUE). Understanding these physiological processes in Mediterranean shrubs is crucial for assessing further climate change impacts on ecosystemic functions and services. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd
Peñuelas, J., Sardans, J., Filella, I., Estiarte, M., Llusià, J., Ogaya, R., Carnicer, J., Bartrons, M., Rivas-Ubach, A., Grau, O., Peguero, G., Margalef, O., Pla-Rabés, S., Stefanescu, C., Asensio, D., Preece, C., Liu, L., Verger, A., Rico, L., Barbeta, A., Achotegui-Castells, A., Gargallo-Garriga, A., Sperlich, D., Farré-Armengol, G., Fernández-Martínez, M., Liu, D., Zhang, C., Urbina, I., Camino, M., Vives, M., Nadal-Sala, D., Sabaté, S., Gracia, C., Terradas, J. (2016) Assessment of the impacts of climate change on Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems based on data from field experiments and long-term monitored field gradients in Catalonia. Environmental and Experimental Botany. : 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2017.05.012
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