Funes I., Savé R., Rovira P., Molowny-Horas R., Alcañiz J.M., Ascaso E., Herms I., Herrero C., Boixadera J., Vayreda J. (2019) Agricultural soil organic carbon stocks in the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula: Drivers and spatial variability. Science of the Total Environment. 668: 283-294.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.317
Estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks under agriculture, assessing the importance of their drivers and understanding the spatial distribution of SOC stocks are crucial to predicting possible future SOC stocks scenarios under climate change conditions and to designing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies. This study characterized and modelled SOC stocks at two soil depth intervals, topsoil (0–30 cm) and subsoil (30–100 cm), based on both legacy and recent data from 7245 agricultural soil profiles and using environmental drivers (climate, agricultural practices and soil properties) for agricultural soils in Catalonia (NE Spain). Generalized Least Square (GLS) and Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) were used as modelling approaches to: (i) assess the main SOC stock drivers and their effects on SOC stocks; (ii) analyse spatial variability of SOC stocks and their relationships with the main drivers; and (iii) predict and map SOC stocks at the regional scale. While topsoil variation of SOC stocks depended mainly on climate, soil texture and agricultural variables, subsoil SOC stocks changes depended mainly on soil attributes such us soil texture, clay content, soil type or depth to bedrock. The GWR model revealed that the relationship between SOC stocks and drivers varied spatially. Finally, the study was only able to predict and map topsoil SOC stocks at the regional scale, because controlling factors of SOC stocks at the subsoil level were largely unavailable for digital mapping. According to the resulting map, the mean SOC stock value for Catalan agriculture at the topsoil level was 4.88 ± 0.89 kg/m 2 and the total magnitude of the carbon pool in agricultural soils of Catalonia up to 30 cm reached 47.9 Tg. The present study findings are useful for defining carbon sequestration strategies at the regional scale related with agricultural land use changes and agricultural management practices in a context of climate change. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.
Tiné M., Perez L., Molowny-Horas R. (2019) Hybrid spatiotemporal simulation of future changes in open wetlands: A study of the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region, Québec, Canada. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 74: 302-313.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.jag.2018.10.001
Among the most productive ecosystems around the world, wetlands support a wide range of biodiversity such as waterfowl, fish, amphibians, plants and many other species. They also provide ecosystem services that play important roles in relation to nutrient cycling, climate mitigation and adaptation, as well as food security. In this research, we examined and projected the spatiotemporal trends of change in open wetlands by coupling logistic regression, Markov chain methods and a multi-objective land allocation model into a hybrid geosimulation model. To study the changes in open wetlands we used multi-temporal land cover information interpreted from LANDSAT images (1985, 1995, and 2005). We predicted future spatial distributions of open wetlands in the administrative region of Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Quebec, Canada for 2015, 2025, 2035, 2045 and 2055. A comparison and assessment of the model's outcomes were performed using map-comparison techniques as well as landscape metrics. Change analysis between 1985 and 2005 showed an increase of about 63% in open wetlands, while simulation results indicated that this tendency would persist into 2055 with a continuous augmentation of open wetlands in the region. The spatial distribution of predicted trends in open wetlands could provide support to local biodiversity assessments, management and conservation planning of the open wetlands in Quebec, Canada. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
Barba, J., Lloret, F., Poyatos, R., Molowny-Horas, R., Yuste, J.C. (2018) Multi-temporal influence of vegetation on soil respiration in a droughtaffected forest. IForest. 11: 189-198.LinkDoi: 10.3832/ifor2448-011
García-Callejas D., Molowny-Horas R., Araújo M.B. (2018) The effect of multiple biotic interaction types on species persistence. Ecology. 99: 2327-2337.LinkDoi: 10.1002/ecy.2465
No species can persist in isolation from other species, but how biotic interactions affect species persistence is still a matter of inquiry. Is persistence more likely in communities with higher proportion of competing species, or in communities with more positive interactions? How do different components of community structure mediate this relationship? We address these questions using a novel simulation framework that generates realistic communities with varying numbers of species and different proportions of biotic interaction types within and across trophic levels. We show that when communities have fewer species, persistence is more likely if positive interactions—such as mutualism and commensalism—are prevalent. In species-rich communities, the disproportionate effect of positive interactions on persistence is diluted and different combinations of biotic interaction types can coexist without affecting persistence significantly. We present the first theoretical examination of how multiple-interaction networks with varying architectures relate to local species persistence, and provide insight about the underlying causes of stability in communities. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America
Molowny-Horas R., Borrego A., Riera P., Espelta J.M. (2018) Severe wildfire in a mediterranean forest. Equivalency Methods for Environmental Liability: Assessing Damage and Compensation Under the European Environmental Liability Directive. : 203-234.LinkDoi: 10.1007/978-90-481-9812-2_11
This case study illustrates the equivalency analysis for estimating ex post environmental damage and appropriate compensatory remediation following a severe wildfire caused by a power line in a forest protected under the European Union Habitats Directive (HD). The study addresses long-term environmental damage (e.g., over several decades) by a large-scale disturbance in a terrestrial ecosystem, and includes an analysis of uncertainty associated with the potential occurrence of natural future fire events in the area. Accounting for the probability of natural future forest fires directly affects both baseline and compensatory remediation options by reducing the habitat area compared to an assumption of no future forest fires. Only natural forest fires, i.e., 10% of all forest fires, have been included in the calculations of both the baseline and the compensatory remediation, since the operator may not be made liable for accidental or provoked forest fires. The impact of this hypothesis is tested by means of a sensitivity analysis. The case study illustrates: • Considerations in selecting a metric from various potential ones (hectares, trees, biomass, habitat quality) for terrestrial habitats included in the HD; • Application of a value equivalency approach (specifically, value-to-value); • Analysis of key variables (e.g., differences in metrics, single/multiple metrics, on-site/off-site implementation); and • Sensitivity of the results to changes in four key model parameters (i.e. area of future forest fires, tree mortality, percentage of natural forest fires and tree minimum diameter at breast height). © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2018.
Sgolastra, F., Blasioli, S., Renzi, T., Tosi, S., Medrzycki, P., Molowny-Horas, R., Porrini, C., Braschi, I. (2018) Lethal effects of Cr(III) alone and in combination with propiconazole and clothianidin in honey bees. Chemosphere. 191: 365-372.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.10.068
Andrés, P., Moore, J.C., Cotrufo, F., Denef, K., Haddix, M.L., Molowny-Horas, R., Riba, M., Wall, D.H. (2017) Grazing and edaphic properties mediate soil biotic response to altered precipitation patterns in a semiarid prairie. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 113: 263-274.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.06.022
Armenteras, D., Sebastian Barreto, J., Tabor, K., Molowny-Horas, R., Retana, J. (2017) Changing patterns of fire occurrence in proximity to forest edges, roads and rivers between NW Amazonian countries. Biogeosciences. 14: 2755-2765.LinkDoi: 10.5194/bg-14-2755-2017
García-Callejas, D., Molowny-Horas, R., Araújo, M.B. (2017) Multiple interactions networks: Towards more realistic descriptions of the web of life. Oikos. : 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1111/oik.04428
Margalef O., Sardans J., Fernández-Martínez M., Molowny-Horas R., Janssens I.A., Ciais P., Goll D., Richter A., Obersteiner M., Asensio D., Peñuelas J. (2017) Global patterns of phosphatase activity in natural soils. Scientific Reports. 7: 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1038/s41598-017-01418-8
Soil phosphatase levels strongly control the biotic pathways of phosphorus (P), an essential element for life, which is often limiting in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated the influence of climatic and soil traits on phosphatase activity in terrestrial systems using metadata analysis from published studies. This is the first analysis of global measurements of phosphatase in natural soils. Our results suggest that organic P (Porg), rather than available P, is the most important P fraction in predicting phosphatase activity. Structural equation modeling using soil total nitrogen (TN), mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, thermal amplitude and total soil carbon as most available predictor variables explained up to 50% of the spatial variance in phosphatase activity. In this analysis, Porg could not be tested and among the rest of available variables, TN was the most important factor explaining the observed spatial gradients in phosphatase activity. On the other hand, phosphatase activity was also found to be associated with climatic conditions and soil type across different biomes worldwide. The close association among different predictors like Porg, TN and precipitation suggest that P recycling is driven by a broad scale pattern of ecosystem productivity capacity. © 2017 The Author(s).
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