(2016) Annual Report CREAF 2015. . : -.
(2016) CITIZEN SCIENCE sheet (English). . : -.
(2016) SAPFLUXNET: towards a global database of sap flow measurements. . : -.LinkDoi: https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpw110
(2016) European Handbook of Crowdsourced Geographic Information. . : -.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/bax
Achotegui-Castells A., Della Rocca G., Llusià J., Danti R., Barberini S., Bouneb M., Simoni S., Michelozzi M., Peñuelas J. (2016) Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale - Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem. Scientific Reports. 6: 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1038/srep18954
The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle.
Aguillaume L., Rodrigo A., Avila A. (2016) Long-term effects of changing atmospheric pollution on throughfall, bulk deposition and streamwaters in a Mediterranean forest. Science of the Total Environment. 544: 919-928.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.017
The abatement programs implanted in Europe to reduce SO2, NO2 and NH3 emissions are here evaluated by analyzing the relationships between emissions in Spain and neighboring countries and atmospheric deposition in a Mediterranean forest in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain) for the last 3decades. A canopy budget model was applied to throughfall data measured during a period of high emissions (1995-1996) and a period of lower emissions (2011-2013) to estimate the changes in dry deposition over this time span.Emissions of SO2 in Spain strongly decreased (77%) and that was reflected in reductions for nssSO4 2- in precipitation (65% for concentrations and 62% for SO4 2-S deposition). A lower decline was found for dry deposition (29%).Spanish NO2 emissions increased from 1980 to 1991, remained constant until 2005, and decreased thereafter, a pattern that was paralleled by NO3 - concentrations in bulk precipitation at Montseny. This pattern seems to be related to a higher share of renewable energies in electricity generation in Spain in recent years. However, dry deposition increased markedly between 1995 and 2012, from 1.3 to 6.7kgha-1year- 1. Differences in meteorology between periods may have had a role, since the recent period was drier thus probably favoring dry deposition.Spanish NH3 emissions increased by 13% between 1980 and 2012 in Spain but NH4 + concentrations in precipitation and NH4 +-N deposition showed a decreasing trend (15% reduction) at Montseny, probably linked to the reduction ammonium sulfate and nitrate aerosols to be scavenged by rainfall. NH4 +-N dry deposition was similar between the compared periods.The N load at Montseny (15-17kgha-1year-1) was within the critical load range proposed for Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests (15-17.5kgha-1year-1). The onset of N saturation is suggested by the observed increasing N export in streamwaters. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Aguillaume, L. (2016) La deposición de nitrógeno en encinares Mediterráneos: Cargas e indicadores. Ecosistemas. 25: 110-113.LinkDoi: 10.7818/ECOS.2016.25-2.15
Ameztegui A., Coll L., Brotons L., Ninot J.M. (2016) Land-use legacies rather than climate change are driving the recent upward shift of the mountain tree line in the Pyrenees. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 25: 263-273.LinkDoi: 10.1111/geb.12407
Aim: To assess the effects of climate change, past land uses and physiography on the current position of the tree line in the Catalan Pyrenees and its dynamics between 1956 and 2006. Location: More than 1000 linear kilometres of sub-alpine tree line in the Catalan Pyrenees (north-east Spain) Methods: Using aerial photographs and supervised classification, we reclassified the images into a binary raster with 'tree' and 'non-tree' values, and determined canopy cover in 1956 and 2006. We then determined the change in position of the tree line between 1956 and 2006 based on changes in forest cover. We used the distance from the position of the tree line in 1956 to the theoretical potential tree line - determined from interpretation of aerial photographs, identifying the highest old remnants of forest for homogeneous areas of the landscape in terms of bioclimatic conditions, bedrock, landform and exposure - as a surrogate of intensity of past land uses. Results: Our analyses showed that the Pyrenean tree line has moved upwards on average almost 40m (mean advance±SE: 35.3±0.5m, P
Ameztegui, A., Paquette, A., Shipley, B., Heym, M., Messier, C., Gravel, D. (2016) Shade tolerance and the functional trait: Demography relationship in temperate and boreal forests. Functional Ecology. : 0-0.LinkDoi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12804
Anderegg, W.R.L., Martinez-Vilalta, J., Cailleret, M., Camarero, J.J., Ewers, B.E., Galbraith, D., Gessler, A., Grote, R., Huang, C.-Y., Levick, S.R., Powell, T.L., Rowland, L., Sánchez-Salguero, R., Trotsiuk, V. (2016) When a Tree Dies in the Forest: Scaling Climate-Driven Tree Mortality to Ecosystem Water and Carbon Fluxes. Ecosystems. 19: 1133-1147.LinkDoi: 10.1007/s10021-016-9982-1
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