Greenberg J.P., Penuelas J., Guenther A., Seco R., Turnipseed A., Jiang X., Filella I., Estiarte M., Sardans J., Ogaya R., Llusia J., Rapparini F. (2014) A tethered-balloon PTRMS sampling approach for surveying of landscape-scale biogenic VOC fluxes. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 7: 2263-2271.LinkDoi: 10.5194/amt-7-2263-2014
Landscape-scale fluxes of biogenic gases were surveyed by deploying a 100 m Teflon tube attached to a tethered balloon as a sampling inlet for a fast-response proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTRMS). Along with meteorological instruments deployed on the tethered balloon and a 3 m tripod and outputs from a regional weather model, these observations were used to estimate landscape-scale biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes with two micrometeorological techniques: mixed layer variance and surface layer gradients. This highly mobile sampling system was deployed at four field sites near Barcelona to estimate landscape-scale biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission factors in a relatively short period (3 weeks). The two micrometeorological techniques were compared with emissions predicted with a biogenic emission model using site-specific emission factors and land-cover characteristics for all four sites. The methods agreed within the uncertainty of the techniques in most cases, even though the locations had considerable heterogeneity in species distribution and complex terrain. Considering the wide range in reported BVOC emission factors for individual vegetation species (more than an order of magnitude), this temporally short and inexpensive flux estimation technique may be useful for constraining BVOC emission factors used as model inputs. © 2014 Author(s).
Garbulsky M.F., Peñuelas J., Ogaya R., Filella I. (2013) Leaf and stand-level carbon uptake of a Mediterranean forest estimated using the satellite-derived reflectance indices EVI and PRI. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 34: 1282-1296.LinkDoi: 10.1080/01431161.2012.718457
Various aspects of global environmental change affect plant photosynthesis, the primary carbon input in ecosystems. Thus, accurate methods of measuring plant photosynthesis are important. Remotely sensed spectral indices can monitor in detail the green biomass of ecosystems, which provides a measure of potential photosynthetic capacity. In evergreen vegetation types, however, such as Mediterranean forests, the amount of green biomass changes little during the growing season and, therefore, changes in green biomass are not responsible for changes in photosynthetic rates in those forests. This study examined the net photosynthetic rates and the diametric increment of stems in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex using three spectral indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and photochemical reflectance index (PRI)) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Average annual EVI accounted for 83% of the variability of the diametric increment of Q. ilex stems over a 10 year period. NDVI was marginally correlated with the diametric increment of stems. This study was the first to identify a significant correlation between net photosynthetic rates and radiation use efficiency at the leaf level using PRI derived from satellite data analysed at the ecosystem level. These results suggest that each spectral index provided different and complementary information about ecosystem carbon uptake in a Mediterranean Q. ilex forest. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Penuelas J., Guenther A., Rapparini F., Llusia J., Filella I., Seco R., Estiarte M., Mejia-Chang M., Ogaya R., Ibanez J., Sardans J., Castano L.M., Turnipseed A., Duhl T., Harley P., Vila J., Estavillo J.M., Menendez S., Facini O., Baraldi R., Geron C., Mak J., Patton E.G., Jiang X., Greenberg J. (2013) Intensive measurements of gas, water, and energy exchange between vegetation and troposphere during the MONTES campaign in a vegetation gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Atmospheric Environment. 75: 348-364.LinkDoi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.04.032
MONTES ("Woodlands") was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at measuring energy, water and especially gas exchange between vegetation and atmosphere in a gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in NE Spain in the North Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The measurements were performed at a semidesertic area (Monegros), at a coastal Mediterranean shrubland area (Garraf), at a typical Mediterranean holm oak forest area (Prades) and at a wet temperate beech forest (Montseny) during spring (April 2010) under optimal plant physiological conditions in driest-warmest sites and during summer (July 2010) with drought and heat stresses in the driest-warmest sites and optimal conditions in the wettest-coolest site. The objective of this campaign was to study the differences in gas, water and energy exchange occurring at different vegetation coverages and biomasses. Particular attention was devoted to quantitatively understand the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) because of their biological and environmental effects in the WMB. A wide range of instruments (GC-MS, PTR-MS, meteorological sensors, O3 monitors,. .) and vertical platforms such as masts, tethered balloons and aircraft were used to characterize the gas, water and energy exchange at increasing footprint areas by measuring vertical profiles. In this paper we provide an overview of the MONTES campaign: the objectives, the characterization of the biomass and gas, water and energy exchange in the 4 sites-areas using satellite data, the estimation of isoprene and monoterpene emissions using MEGAN model, the measurements performed and the first results. The isoprene and monoterpene emission rates estimated with MEGAN and emission factors measured at the foliar level for the dominant species ranged from about 0 to 0.2mgm-2h-1 in April. The warmer temperature in July resulted in higher model estimates from about 0 to ca. 1.6mgm-2h-1 for isoprene and ca. 4.5mgm-2h-1 for monoterpenes, depending on the site vegetation and footprint area considered. There were clear daily and seasonal patterns with higher emission rates and mixing ratios at midday and summer relative to early morning and early spring. There was a significant trend in CO2 fixation (from 1 to 10mgCm-2d-1), transpiration (from1-5kgCm-2d-1), and sensible and latent heat from the warmest-driest to the coolest-wettest site. The results showed the strong land-cover-specific influence on emissions of BVOCs, gas, energy and water exchange, and therefore demonstrate the potential for feed-back to atmospheric chemistry and climate. •We present a multidisciplinary biosphere-atmosphere field campaign.•We measured a gradient from semi-desertic shrublands to wet temperate forests.•A wide range of instruments and vertical platforms were used.•Land cover strongly influenced emissions of BVOCs and gas, energy and water exchange.•Vegetation has strong potential for feed-back to atmospheric chemistry and climate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Penuelas J., Sardans J., Estiarte M., Ogaya R., Carnicer J., Coll M., Barbeta A., Rivas-Ubach A., Llusia J., Garbulsky M., Filella I., Jump A.S. (2013) Evidence of current impact of climate change on life: A walk from genes to the biosphere. Global Change Biology. 19: 2303-2338.LinkDoi: 10.1111/gcb.12143
We review the evidence of how organisms and populations are currently responding to climate change through phenotypic plasticity, genotypic evolution, changes in distribution and, in some cases, local extinction. Organisms alter their gene expression and metabolism to increase the concentrations of several antistress compounds and to change their physiology, phenology, growth and reproduction in response to climate change. Rapid adaptation and microevolution occur at the population level. Together with these phenotypic and genotypic adaptations, the movement of organisms and the turnover of populations can lead to migration toward habitats with better conditions unless hindered by barriers. Both migration and local extinction of populations have occurred. However, many unknowns for all these processes remain. The roles of phenotypic plasticity and genotypic evolution and their possible trade-offs and links with population structure warrant further research. The application of omic techniques to ecological studies will greatly favor this research. It remains poorly understood how climate change will result in asymmetrical responses of species and how it will interact with other increasing global impacts, such as N eutrophication, changes in environmental N : P ratios and species invasion, among many others. The biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks on climate of all these changes in vegetation are also poorly understood. We here review the evidence of responses to climate change and discuss the perspectives for increasing our knowledge of the interactions between climate change and life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Llebot JE, Carnicer J, Curiel J, Coll M, Díaz de Quijano M, Estiarte M, Filella I, Garbulsky M, Jump A, Llusià J, Ogaya R, Peñuelas J, Rico L, Rivas-Ubach A, Rutishauser T, Sardans J, Seco R, Silva J, Stefanescu C, Terradas J (2012) Second report on climate change in Catalonia. Executive summary. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. Generalitat de Catalunya. pp. 1-36. ISBN9788499650975.
Peñuelas J, Filella I, Farré G, Owen S, Primante C, Rodrigo A, Martín A, Bosch J, Seco R, Porcar A, Llusià J, Greenberg J, Harley P, Rapparini F, Estiarte M, Mejia-Chang M, Ogaya R, Ibañez J, Sardans J, Turnipseed A, Geron C, Duhl T, Facini O, Baraldi R, Rapparini F, Guenther A (2012) BVOCs in the plant-pollinator market and other applications of ecology to betytyerunderstand BVOC emissions in the environment. BVOCs Gordon Conference, Biogenic Hydrocarbons & the atmosphere. Reaching across scales: from molecule to the globe. Bates College, Maine. June 24-29. Key note invited speaker.
Peñuelas J, Filella I, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Llusià J, Sardans J, Jump A, Carnicer J, Rico L, Garbulsky M, Coll M, Díaz de Quijano M, Seco R, Rivas-Ubach A, Kefauver S, Barbeta A, Achoategui A, Mejía-Chang M, Gallardo A, Farre G, Fernández M, Terradas J (2012) Ecosystemic and biospheric interactions with carbon cycle. In Carbon dioxide budget: processes and tendencies symposium. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, May 23-25.
Peñuelas J, Filella I, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Llusià J, Sardans J, Jump A, Curiel J, Carnicer J, Rutishauser T, Rico L, Keenan T, Garbulsky M, Coll M, Diaz de Quijano M, Seco R, Rivas-Ubach A, Silva J, Boada M, Stefanescu C, Lloret F, Terradas J (2011) Llebot E. (ed). Impactes, vulnerabilitat i retroalimentacions climàtiques als ecosistemes terrestres catalans. Segon informe sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya. Institut d'Estudis Catalans i Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona, pp. 373-407.
Peñuelas J, Gracia C, Filella I, Jump A, Carnicer J, Coll M, Lloret F, Curiel J, Estiarte M, Rutishauser T, Ogaya R, LLusiá J, Sardans J (2010) Intégration des effets du changement climatique sur les forêts méditerranéennes : observation, expérimentation, modélisation et gestion p. 351. Introducing the climate change effects on Mediterranean forest ecosystems: observation, experimentation, simul ation and management . Forêt Méditerranéenne XXXI, nº 4 pp. 357. ISSN 0245-484X.
Peñuelas J, Filella I, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Llusià J, Sardans J, Jump A, Curiel J, Carnicer J, Rutishauser T, Rico L, Keenan T, Garbulsky M, Coll M, Díaz de Quijano M, Seco R, Rivas-Ubach A, Silva J, Boada M, Stefanescu C, Lloret F, Terradas J (2010) Impactes, vulnerabilitat i retroalimentacions climàtiques als ecosistemes terrestres catalans. A: Llebot E. (ed). Segon informe sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya. Institut d'Estudis Catalans i Generalitat de Catalunya. pp. 373-407.
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