Land cover change in Europe between 1950 and 2000 determined employing aerial photography

Gerard F., Petit S., Smith G., Thomson A., Brown N., Manchester S., Wadsworth R., Bugar G., Halada L., Bezák P., Boltiziar M., de Badts E., Halabuk A., Mojses M., Petrovic F., Gregor M., Hazeu G., Mücher C.A., Wachowicz M., Huitu H., Tuominen S., Köhler R., Olschofsky K., Ziese H., Kolar J., Sustera J., Luque S., Pino J., Pons X., Roda F., Roscher M., Feranec J. (2010) Land cover change in Europe between 1950 and 2000 determined employing aerial photography. Progress in Physical Geography. 34: 183-205.
Link
Doi: 10.1177/0309133309360141

Abstract:

BIOPRESS ('Linking Pan-European Land Cover Change to Pressures on Biodiversity'), a European Commission funded 'Global Monitoring for Environment and Security' project, produced land cover change information (1950-2000) for Europe from aerial photographs and tested the suitability of this for monitoring habitats and biodiversity. The methods and results related to the land cover change work are summarized. Changes in land cover were established through 73 window and 59 transect samples distributed across Europe. Although the sample size was too small and biased to fully represent the spatial variability observed in Europe, the work highlighted the importance of method consistency, the choice of nomenclature and spatial scale. The results suggest different processes are taking place in different parts of Europe: the Boreal and Alpine regions are dominated by forest management; abandonment and intensification are mainly encountered in the Mediterranean; urbanization and drainage are more characteristic of the Continental and Atlantic regions. © The Author(s) 2010.

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Indicadores de fragmentación de hábitats causada por infraestructuras lineales de transporte.

Pino J, Rodà F, Rosell C, Campeny R (2010) Indicadores de fragmentación de hábitats causada por infraestructuras lineales de transporte. Organismo Autónomo Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid. 140 pp. ISBN 978-84-8014-782-8.

Habitat fragmentation causes immediate and time-delayed biodiversity loss at different trophic levels

Krauss J., Bommarco R., Guardiola M., Heikkinen R.K., Helm A., Kuussaari M., Lindborg R., Öckinger E., Pärtel M., Pino J., Pöyry J., Raatikainen K.M., Sang A., Stefanescu C., Teder T., Zobel M., Steffan-Dewenter I. (2010) Habitat fragmentation causes immediate and time-delayed biodiversity loss at different trophic levels. Ecology Letters. 13: 597-605.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01457.x

Abstract:

Intensification or abandonment of agricultural land use has led to a severe decline of semi-natural habitats across Europe. This can cause immediate loss of species but also time-delayed extinctions, known as the extinction debt. In a pan-European study of 147 fragmented grassland remnants, we found differences in the extinction debt of species from different trophic levels. Present-day species richness of long-lived vascular plant specialists was better explained by past than current landscape patterns, indicating an extinction debt. In contrast, short-lived butterfly specialists showed no evidence for an extinction debt at a time scale of c. 40 years. Our results indicate that management strategies maintaining the status quo of fragmented habitats are insufficient, as time-delayed extinctions and associated co-extinctions will lead to further biodiversity loss in the future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

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Explaining the successful introduction of the alpine marmot in the Pyrenees

López B.C., Pino J., López A. (2010) Explaining the successful introduction of the alpine marmot in the Pyrenees. Biological Invasions. 12: 3205-3217.
Link
Doi: 10.1007/s10530-010-9712-0

Abstract:

Alpine marmots were introduced into the northern Pyrenees between 1948 and 1988 from individuals captured in the French Alps, in order to bolster food sources for the golden eagle and brown bear. The marmot's subsequent occupation of the southern Pyrenees has been extremely fast. From an initial population of ~400 individuals, the present population in the southern Pyrenees is estimated to be of more than 10,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to assess what were the mechanisms that have enabled such a fast occupation of the territory. We studied habitat preferences and habitat selection of the alpine marmot in the southern Pyrenees both at the micro- and meso-scale, and compared our results with similar data in the bibliography on their native region. We also compared climatic data from both the native and introduction sites. Our results indicate relatively low climate (precipitation and temperature) matching between the two sites but a relatively high habitat matching. Marmots negatively select high woody cover and the presence of conifers in their home range, while they choose alpine and sub-alpine meadows close to rivers with boulders. Furthermore, the marmot population is independent of snow cover duration. We conclude that the successful establishment in the Pyrenees by the alpine marmot is explained both by the habitat- and climate-matching mechanisms. In both aspects, marmots show a generalist response. Meso-scale GIS-derived variables were non significant when analyzed together with local, micro-scale variables from field measurements. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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Social metabolism, landscape change and land-use planning in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region

Marull J., Pino J., Tello E., Cordobilla M.J. (2010) Social metabolism, landscape change and land-use planning in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region. Land Use Policy. 27: 497-510.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.07.004

Abstract:

The present work explores the synergies between socio-metabolic energy use and landscape patterns, starting from the hypothesis that there is a complex and changing relationship between the efficiency in both the societal use of energy, and land-use, and the ecosystem functioning of the whole land matrix of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR). It first compares changes in the social metabolism (i.e. the total energy or material throughput of the economy) and in landscape structure and function from 1850 to the present in three municipalities of the Vallès county (N of the BMR), as a first attempt to establish a link between the societal uses of land and energy together with their impact on landscape patterns. Secondly, the study explores the role of natural versus rural landscapes on the maintaining of basic functional properties such as connectivity in the whole BMR. We base our analyses on parametric methodologies that describe both structural and functional properties of landscapes, aimed at assessing the landscape efficiency of both energy-use and land-use planning. The first comparison reveals that the simultaneous loss of energy efficiency and land-use efficiency from the mid-19th century to present can be tracked by changes in the functional landscape structure. The second study shows the importance of the traditional rural landscapes in maintaining the ecological quality of non-built-up land. In consequence, the organized complexity of the land system necessary to host biodiversity and basic ecological processes cannot be guaranteed if the agro-forestry mosaic is not taken into account, together with the network of protected areas. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Are island plant communities more invaded than their mainland counterparts?

Vilà M., Pino J., Montero A., Font X. (2010) Are island plant communities more invaded than their mainland counterparts?. Journal of Vegetation Science. 21: 438-446.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2009.01166.x

Abstract:

Questions: Are island vegetation communities more invaded than their mainland counterparts? Is this pattern consistent among community types? Location: The coastal provinces of Catalonia and the para-oceanic Balearic Islands, both in NE Spain. These islands were connected to the continent more than 5.35 million years ago and are now located

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