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Climate variability and community stability in Mediterranean shrublands: The role of functional diversity and soil environment

Pérez-Ramos, I.M., Díaz-Delgado, R., de la Riva, E.G., Villar, R., Lloret, F., Marañón, T. (2017) Climate variability and community stability in Mediterranean shrublands: The role of functional diversity and soil environment. Journal of Ecology. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12747

Abstract:

Comparing current chemical methods to assess biochar organic carbon in a Mediterranean agricultural soil amended with two different biochars

Raya-Moreno I., Cañizares R., Domene X., Carabassa V., Alcañiz J.M. (2017) Comparing current chemical methods to assess biochar organic carbon in a Mediterranean agricultural soil amended with two different biochars. Science of the Total Environment. 598: 604-618.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.168

Abstract:

Several methods have been proposed to quantify biochar C recalcitrance but their suitability is questionable. The aims of this work are: i) to compare the suitability of thermal or chemical oxidation and acid hydrolysis methods to quantify biochar C-pool in a biochar-amended soil, and ii) to calculate the biochar content in the soil through a mass balance derived from the obtained data. Two contrasted biochars from pine wood and corn cob remains were incorporated at a rate of 5 Mg C ha− 1 to a sandy loam vineyard soil with neutral pH and low organic carbon content, in field conditions. The analytical methods used to determine the oxidability and hydrolyzation of soil and biochar-C were: i) weight loss-on-ignition (LOI) at three temperatures (375 °C, 550 °C and 950 °C) for the assessment of organic matter, and ii) dry-combustion (TOC), strong (sO) and mild (mO) acid potassium dichromate oxidations, acid hydrolysis (AH) and peroxide oxidation (PO) for the assessment of organic C-pools. mO mainly estimated the easy oxidisable organic fraction of soil. Resistant organic carbon (ROC), estimated as non-hydrolysable organic carbon by AH and as non-oxidisable by mO, led to similar values in control soil (5 g C kg− 1 soil), whereas different ROC values were obtained in soils amended with biochar (6–12 g C kg− 1 soil). The suitability of these different methods as proxies to quantify biochar C was verified through a mass balance observing differences between them. PO removes well native soil organic matter, but also attacks partially biochar's fraction, so an underestimation exists. However, mO leaves intact biochar in the amended soil. Summarising, LOI, TOC and mO were the best proxies for biochar-C quantification, especially the last one, somewhat clarifying the debate on this topic. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

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Shrubland primary production and soil respiration diverge along European climate gradient

Reinsch, S., Koller, E., Sowerby, A., De Dato, G., Estiarte, M., Guidolotti, G., Kovács-Láng, E., Kröel-Dulay, G., Lellei-Kovács, E., Larsen, K.S., Liberati, D., Peñuelas, J., Ransijn, J., Robinson, D.A., Schmidt, I.K., Smith, A.R., Tietema, A., Dukes, J.S., Beier, C., Emmett, B.A. (2017) Shrubland primary production and soil respiration diverge along European climate gradient. Scientific Reports. 7: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1038/srep43952

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The ratio between chrysophycean cysts and diatoms in temperate, mountain lakes: some recommendations for its use in paleolimnology

Rivera-Rondón, C.A., Catalan, J. (2017) The ratio between chrysophycean cysts and diatoms in temperate, mountain lakes: some recommendations for its use in paleolimnology. Journal of Paleolimnology. 57: 273-285.
Link
Doi: 10.1007/s10933-017-9946-2

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Wind effects and regeneration in broadleaf and pine stands after hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua

Rossi, E., Granzow-de la Cerda, I., Oliver, C.D., Kulakowski, D. (2017) Wind effects and regeneration in broadleaf and pine stands after hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua. Forest Ecology and Management. 400: 199-207.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2017.05.034

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Climate- and successional-related changes in functional composition of European forests are strongly driven by tree mortality

Ruiz-Benito, P., Ratcliffe, S., Zavala, M.A., Martínez-Vilalta, J., Vilà-Cabrera, A., Lloret, F., Madrigal-González, J., Wirth, C., Greenwood, S., Kändler, G., Lehtonen, A., Kattge, J., Dahlgren, J., Jump, A.S. (2017) Climate- and successional-related changes in functional composition of European forests are strongly driven by tree mortality. Global Change Biology. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/gcb.13728

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Report on Spermophagus niger Motschulsky, 1866 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae: Amblycerini) infesting the seeds of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) during post-harvest storage in Burkina Faso

Sanon A., Koussoube J.C., Ba M.N., Dabire-Binso L.C., Sembène M. (2017) Report on Spermophagus niger Motschulsky, 1866 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae: Amblycerini) infesting the seeds of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) during post-harvest storage in Burkina Faso. Journal of Stored Products Research. 72: 64-67.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.jspr.2017.04.002

Abstract:

This paper reports the presence and characteristics of the bruchid Spermophagus niger Motschulsky as a major pest of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds during post-harvest storage in Burkina Faso. Samples of roselle seeds collected in farmers granaries at three locations in Burkina Faso at the beginning of crop storage were brought to the laboratory and held for 2 months. All seed samples were infested with varying levels of S. niger, though samples from Tougan and Dedougou were more highly infested than those from Ouagadougou. Infested seeds generally had only one insect emergence hole, with seed perforation rates ranging from 1.8% to 4%. Insect rearing in the laboratory provided an opportunity for a clearer discrimination of sexual dimorphism and a better morphological description of the species. Males were smaller and weighed less than females. Post-embryonic development, which took place entirely within the seed, included four larval instars and one pupal stage; these stages are common in the subfamily Bruchinae. Our preliminary observations will enable a better understanding of this previously little-known insect pest. Furthermore, these results offer baseline data for further into appropriate post-harvest management of roselle in West Africa. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

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Species climatic niche explains drought-induced die-off in a Mediterranean woody community

Sapes, G., Serra-Diaz, J.M., Lloret, F. (2017) Species climatic niche explains drought-induced die-off in a Mediterranean woody community. Ecosphere. 8: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1833

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Changes in nutrient concentrations of leaves and roots in response to global change factors

Sardans J., Grau O., Chen H.Y.H., Janssens I.A., Ciais P., Piao S., Peñuelas J. (2017) Changes in nutrient concentrations of leaves and roots in response to global change factors. Global Change Biology. 23: 3849-3856.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/gcb.13721

Abstract:

Global change impacts on biogeochemical cycles have been widely studied, but our understanding of whether the responses of plant elemental composition to global change drivers differ between above- and belowground plant organs remains incomplete. We conducted a meta-analysis of 201 reports including 1,687 observations of studies that have analyzed simultaneously N and P concentrations changes in leaves and roots in the same plants in response to drought, elevated [CO2], and N and P fertilization around the world, and contrasted the results within those obtained with a general database (838 reports and 14,772 observations) that analyzed the changes in N and P concentrations in leaves and/or roots of plants submitted to the commented global change drivers. At global level, elevated [CO2] decreased N concentrations in leaves and roots and decreased N:P ratio in roots but no in leaves, but was not related to P concentration changes. However, the response differed among vegetation types. In temperate forests, elevated [CO2] was related with lower N concentrations in leaves but not in roots, whereas in crops, the contrary patterns were observed. Elevated [CO2] decreased N concentrations in leaves and roots in tundra plants, whereas not clear relationships were observed in temperate grasslands. However, when elevated [CO2] and N fertilization coincided, leaves had lower N concentrations, whereas root had higher N concentrations suggesting that more nutrients will be allocated to roots to improve uptake of the soil resources not directly provided by the global change drivers. N fertilization and drought increased foliar and root N concentrations while the effects on P concentrations were less clear. The changes in N and P allocation to leaves and root, especially those occurring in opposite direction between them have the capacity to differentially affect above- and belowground ecosystem functions, such as litter mineralization and above- and belowground food webs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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Unmanned aircraft systems to unravel spatial and temporal factors affecting dynamics of colony formation and nesting success in birds

Sardà-Palomera F., Bota G., Padilla N., Brotons L., Sardà F. (2017) Unmanned aircraft systems to unravel spatial and temporal factors affecting dynamics of colony formation and nesting success in birds. Journal of Avian Biology. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/jav.01535

Abstract:

Collecting information of ecological and behavioural processes often requires continuous field monitoring, however, reiterative human presence necessary to obtain monitoring data can disturb both the environment and the study species. An example of this phenomenon is the monitoring of the formation and dynamics of seabird colonies; one of the reasons for colony failure is disturbances caused by the presence of researchers or conservation managers during data collection. In this study, an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was used throughout the breeding period to monitor the temporal and spatial dynamics of a black-headed gull colony in the interior of a difficult-to-access island. This methodology permitted weekly visits to the colony without disturbance, which allowed for the continuous collection of spatial and temporal data on the process of colony formation. We obtained detailed information about nesting success and its relation with the distance to the nearest incubating neighbour, as well as the colony boundary along breeding season. Thus, we successfully monitored the dynamics of a bird colony and identified factors affecting individual decision making in colony formation using a UAS. © 2017 Nordic Society Oikos.

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