Vapor–pressure deficit and extreme climatic variables limit tree growth

Sanginés de Cárcer, P., Vitasse, Y., Peñuelas, J., Jassey, V.E.J., Buttler, A., Signarbieux, C. (2018) Vapor–pressure deficit and extreme climatic variables limit tree growth. Global Change Biology. 24: 1108-1122.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/gcb.13973

Abstract:

Changes in tree resistance, recovery and resilience across three successive extreme droughts in the northeast Iberian Peninsula

Serra-Maluquer X., Mencuccini M., Martínez-Vilalta J. (2018) Changes in tree resistance, recovery and resilience across three successive extreme droughts in the northeast Iberian Peninsula. Oecologia. : 1-12.
Link
Doi: 10.1007/s00442-018-4118-2

Abstract:

Understanding which variables affect forest resilience to extreme drought is key to predict future dynamics under ongoing climate change. In this study, we analyzed how tree resistance, recovery and resilience to drought have changed along three consecutive droughts and how they were affected by species, tree size, plot basal area (as a proxy for competition) and climate. We focused on the three most abundant pine species in the northeast Iberian Peninsula: Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris during the three most extreme droughts recorded in the period 1951–2010 (occurred in 1986, 1994, and 2005–2006). We cored trees from permanent sample plots and used dendrochronological techniques to estimate resistance (ability to maintain growth level during drought), recovery (growth increase after drought) and resilience (capacity to recover pre-drought growth levels) in terms of tree stem basal area increment. Mixed-effects models were used to determine which tree- and plot-level variables were the main determinants of resistance, recovery and resilience, and to test for differences among the studied droughts. Larger trees were significantly less resistant and resilient. Plot basal area effects were only observed for resilience, with a negative impact only during the last drought. Resistance, recovery and resilience differed across the studied drought events, so that the studied populations became less resistant, less resilient and recovered worse during the last two droughts. This pattern suggests an increased vulnerability to drought after successive drought episodes. © 2018 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature

Read more

Lethal effects of Cr(III) alone and in combination with propiconazole and clothianidin in honey bees

Sgolastra, F., Blasioli, S., Renzi, T., Tosi, S., Medrzycki, P., Molowny-Horas, R., Porrini, C., Braschi, I. (2018) Lethal effects of Cr(III) alone and in combination with propiconazole and clothianidin in honey bees. Chemosphere. 191: 365-372.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.10.068

Abstract:

Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests

Slik J.W.F., Franklin J., Arroyo-Rodríguez V., Field R., Aguilar S., Aguirre N., Ahumada J., Aiba S.-I., Alves L.F., Anitha K., Avella A., Mora F., Aymard G.A.C., Báez S., Balvanera P., Bastian M.L., Bastin J.-F., Bellingham P.J., Van Den Berg E., Da Conceição Bispo P., Boeckx P., Boehning-Gaese K., Bongers F., Boyle B., Brambach F., Brearley F.Q., Brown S., Chai S.-L., Chazdon R.L., Chen S., Chhang P., Chuyong G., Ewango C., Coronado I.M., Cristóbal-Azkarate J., Culmsee H., Damas K., Dattaraja H.S., Davidar P., DeWalt S.J., DIn H., Drake D.R., Duque A., Durigan G., Eichhorn K., Eler E.S., Enoki T., Ensslin A., Fandohan A.B., Farwig N., Feeley K.J., Fischer M., Forshed O., Garcia Q.S., Garkoti S.C., Gillespie T.W., Gillet J.-F., Gonmadje C., Granzow-De La Cerda I., Griffith D.M., Grogan J., Hakeem K.R., Harris D.J., Harrison R.D., Hector A., Hemp A., Homeier J., Hussain M.S., Ibarra-Manríquez G., Hanum I.F., Imai N., Jansen P.A., Joly C.A., Joseph S., Kartawinata K., Kearsley E., Kelly D.L., Kessler M., Killeen T.J., Kooyman R.M., Laumonier Y., Laurance S.G., Laurance W.F., Lawes M.J., Letcher S.G., Lindsell J., Lovett J., Lozada J., Lu X., Lykke A.M., Bin Mahmud K., Mahayani N.P.D., Mansor A., Marshall A.R., Martin E.H., Matos D.C.L., Meave J.A., Melo F.P.L., Mendoza Z.H.A., Metali F., Medjibe V.P., Metzger J.P., Metzker T., Mohandass D., Munguía-Rosas M.A., Muñoz R., Nurtjahy E., De Oliveira E.L., Onrizal, Parolin P., Parren M., Parthasarathy N., Paudel E., Perez R., Pérez-García E.A., Pommer U., Poorter L., Qi L., Piedade M.T.F., Pinto J.R.R., Poulsen A.D., Poulsen J.R., Powers J.S., Prasad R.C., Puyravaud J.-P., Rangel O., Reitsma J., Rocha D.S.B., Rolim S., Rovero F., Rozak A., Ruokolainen K., Rutishauser E., Rutten G., Mohd Said M.N., Saiter F.Z., Saner P., Santos B., Dos Santos J.R., Sarker S.K., Schmitt C.B., Schoengart J., Schulze M., Sheil D., Sist P., Souza A.F., Spironello W.R., Sposito T., Steinmetz R., Stevart T., Suganuma M.S., Sukri R., Sultana A., Sukumar R., Sunderland T., Supriyadi, Suresh H.S., Suzuki E., Tabarelli M., Tang J., Tanner E.V.J., Targhetta N., Theilade I., Thomas D., Timberlake J., De Morisson Valeriano M., Van Valkenburg J., Van Do T., Van Sam H., Vandermeer J.H., Verbeeck H., Vetaas O.R., Adekunle V., Vieira S.A., Webb C.O., Webb E.L., Whitfeld T., Wich S., Williams J., Wiser S., Wittmann F., Yang X., Yao C.Y.A., Yap S.L., Zahawi R.A., Zakaria R., Zang R. (2018) Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115: 1837-1842.
Link
Doi: 10.1073/pnas.1714977115

Abstract:

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests. © 2017 IEEE.

Read more

Risk-taking behavior, urbanization and the pace of life in birds

Sol D., Maspons J., Gonzalez-Voyer A., Morales-Castilla I., Garamszegi L.Z., Møller A.P. (2018) Risk-taking behavior, urbanization and the pace of life in birds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 72: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1007/s00265-018-2463-0

Abstract:

Abstract: Despite growing appreciation of the importance of considering a pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) perspective to understand how animals interact with their environment, studies relating behavior to life history under altered environmental conditions are still rare. By means of a comparative analysis of flight initiation distances (i.e., the distance at which an animal takes flight when a human being is approaching) across > 300 bird species distributed worldwide, we document here the existence of a POLS predicted by theory where slow-lived species tend to be more risk-averse than fast-lived species. This syndrome largely emerges from the influence of body mass, and is highly dependent on the environmental context. Accordingly, the POLS structure vanishes in urbanized environments due to slow-lived species adjusting their flight distances based on the perception of risk. While it is unclear whether changes in POLS reflect plastic and/or evolutionary adjustments, our findings highlight the need to integrate behavior into life history theory to fully understand how animals tolerate human-induced environmental changes. Significance statement: Animals can often respond to changing environmental conditions by adjusting their behavior. However, the degree to which different species can modify their behavior depends on their life history strategy and on the environmental context. Species-specific perception of risk is a conspicuous example of adjustable behavior tightly associated with life history strategy. While there is a general tendency of higher risk aversion in rural than city-dwelling birds, it is dependent on the species’ life history strategy. Slow-lived species are more prone to adjust their flight initiation distances based on the perception of risk, allowing humans to approach closer in urban than rural environments. Behavior must therefore be taken into account together with life history to reliably assess species’ vulnerability at the face of ongoing environmental change. © 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Read more

Soil microbial CNP and respiration responses to organic matter and nutrient additions: Evidence from a tropical soil incubation

Soong J.L., Marañon-Jimenez S., Cotrufo M.F., Boeckx P., Bodé S., Guenet B., Peñuelas J., Richter A., Stahl C., Verbruggen E., Janssens I.A. (2018) Soil microbial CNP and respiration responses to organic matter and nutrient additions: Evidence from a tropical soil incubation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 122: 141-149.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.04.011

Abstract:

Soil nutrient availability has a strong influence on the fate of soil carbon (C) during microbial decomposition, contributing to Earth's C balance. While nutrient availability itself can impact microbial physiology and C partitioning between biomass and respiration during soil organic matter decomposition, the availability of labile C inputs may mediate the response of microorganisms to nutrient additions. As soil organic matter is decomposed, microorganisms retain or release C, nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) to maintain a stoichiometric balance. Although the concept of a microbial stoichiometric homeostasis has previously been proposed, microbial biomass CNP ratios are not static, and this may have very relevant implications for microbial physiological activities. Here, we tested the hypothesis that N, P and potassium (K) nutrient additions impact C cycling in a tropical soil due to microbial stoichiometric constraints to growth and respiration, and that the availability of energy-rich labile organic matter in the soil (i.e. leaf litter) mediates the response to nutrient addition. We incubated tropical soil from French Guiana with a 13C labeled leaf litter addition and with mineral nutrient additions of +K, +N, +NK, +PK and +NPK for 30 days. We found that litter additions led to a ten-fold increase in microbial respiration and a doubling of microbial biomass C, along with greater microbial N and P content. We found some evidence that P additions increased soil CO2 fluxes. Additionally, we found microbial biomass CP and NP ratios varied more widely than CN in response to nutrient and organic matter additions, with important implications for the role of microorganisms in C cycling. The addition of litter did not prime soil organic matter decomposition, except in combination with +NK fertilization, indicating possible P-mining of soil organic matter in this P-poor tropical soil. Together, these results point toward an ultimate labile organic substrate limitation of soil microorganisms in this tropical soil, but also indicate a complex interaction between C, N, P and K availability. This highlights the difference between microbial C cycling responses to N, P, or K additions in the tropics and explains why coupled C, N and P cycle modeling efforts cannot rely on strict microbial stoichiometric homeostasis as an underlying assumption. © 2018

Read more

Variation in xylem vulnerability to embolism in European beech from geographically marginal populations

Stojnić S., Suchocka M., Benito-Garzón M., Torres-Ruiz J.M., Cochard H., Bolte A., Cocozza C., Cvjetković B., De Luis M., Martinez-Vilalta J., Ræbild A., Tognetti R., Delzon S. (2018) Variation in xylem vulnerability to embolism in European beech from geographically marginal populations. Tree Physiology. 38: 173-185.
Link
Doi: 10.1093/treephys/tpx128

Abstract:

Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts and heatwaves in Europe, leading to effects on forest growth and major forest dieback events due to hydraulic failure caused by xylem embolism. Inter-specific variability in embolism resistance has been studied in detail, but little is known about intra-specific variability, particularly in marginal populations. We evaluated 15 European beech populations, mostly from geographically marginal sites of the species distribution range, focusing particularly on populations from the dry southern margin. We found small, but significant differences in resistance to embolism between populations, with xylem pressures causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity ranging from -2.84 to -3.55 MPa. Significant phenotypic clines of increasing embolism resistance with increasing temperature and aridity were observed: the southernmost beech populations growing in a warmer drier climate and with lower habitat suitability have higher resistance to embolism than those from Northern Europe growing more favourable conditions. Previous studies have shown that there is little or no difference in embolism resistance between core populations, but our findings show that marginal populations have developed ways of protecting their xylem based on either evolution or plasticity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Read more

Mean annual precipitation predicts primary production resistance and resilience to extreme drought

Stuart-Haëntjens E., De Boeck H.J., Lemoine N.P., Mänd P., Kröel-Dulay G., Schmidt I.K., Jentsch A., Stampfli A., Anderegg W.R.L., Bahn M., Kreyling J., Wohlgemuth T., Lloret F., Classen A.T., Gough C.M., Smith M.D. (2018) Mean annual precipitation predicts primary production resistance and resilience to extreme drought. Science of the Total Environment. 636: 360-366.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.290

Abstract:

Extreme drought is increasing in frequency and intensity in many regions globally, with uncertain consequences for the resistance and resilience of ecosystem functions, including primary production. Primary production resistance, the capacity to withstand change during extreme drought, and resilience, the degree to which production recovers, vary among and within ecosystem types, obscuring generalized patterns of ecological stability. Theory and many observations suggest forest production is more resistant but less resilient than grassland production to extreme drought; however, studies of production sensitivity to precipitation variability indicate that the processes controlling resistance and resilience may be influenced more by mean annual precipitation (MAP) than ecosystem type. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis to investigate primary production resistance and resilience to extreme drought in 64 forests and grasslands across a broad MAP gradient. We found resistance to extreme drought was predicted by MAP; however, grasslands (positive) and forests (negative) exhibited opposing resilience relationships with MAP. Our findings indicate that common plant physiological mechanisms may determine grassland and forest resistance to extreme drought, whereas differences among plant residents in turnover time, plant architecture, and drought adaptive strategies likely underlie divergent resilience patterns. The low resistance and resilience of dry grasslands suggests that these ecosystems are the most vulnerable to extreme drought – a vulnerability that is expected to compound as extreme drought frequency increases in the future. © 2018

Read more

Ecosystem responses to elevated CO<inf>2</inf>governed by plant–soil interactions and the cost of nitrogen acquisition

Terrer, C., Vicca, S., Stocker, B.D., Hungate, B.A., Phillips, R.P., Reich, P.B., Finzi, A.C., Prentice, I.C. (2018) Ecosystem responses to elevated CO2governed by plant–soil interactions and the cost of nitrogen acquisition. New Phytologist. 217: 507-522.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/nph.14872

Abstract:

Environmental and socioeconomic factors of abandonment of rainfed and irrigated crops in northeast Spain

Vidal-Macua, J.J., Ninyerola, M., Zabala, A., Domingo-Marimon, C., Gonzalez-Guerrero, O., Pons, X. (2018) Environmental and socioeconomic factors of abandonment of rainfed and irrigated crops in northeast Spain. Applied Geography. 90: 155-174.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2017.12.005

Abstract:

Pages