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Atmospheric deposition, CO2, and change in the land carbon sink

Fernández-Martínez M., Vicca S., Janssens I.A., Ciais P., Obersteiner M., Bartrons M., Sardans J., Verger A., Canadell J.G., Chevallier F., Wang X., Bernhofer C., Curtis P.S., Gianelle D., Grünwald T., Heinesch B., Ibrom A., Knohl A., Laurila T., Law B.E., Limousin J.M., Longdoz B., Loustau D., Mammarella I., Matteucci G., Monson R.K., Montagnani L., Moors E.J., Munger J.W., Papale D., Piao S.L., Peñuelas J. (2017) Atmospheric deposition, CO2, and change in the land carbon sink. Scientific Reports. 7: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08755-8

Abstract:

Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have continued to increase whereas atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen has declined in Europe and the USA during recent decades. Using time series of flux observations from 23 forests distributed throughout Europe and the USA, and generalised mixed models, we found that forest-level net ecosystem production and gross primary production have increased by 1% annually from 1995 to 2011. Statistical models indicated that increasing atmospheric CO2 was the most important factor driving the increasing strength of carbon sinks in these forests. We also found that the reduction of sulphur deposition in Europe and the USA lead to higher recovery in ecosystem respiration than in gross primary production, thus limiting the increase of carbon sequestration. By contrast, trends in climate and nitrogen deposition did not significantly contribute to changing carbon fluxes during the studied period. Our findings support the hypothesis of a general CO2-fertilization effect on vegetation growth and suggest that, so far unknown, sulphur deposition plays a significant role in the carbon balance of forests in industrialized regions. Our results show the need to include the effects of changing atmospheric composition, beyond CO2, to assess future dynamics of carbon-climate feedbacks not currently considered in earth system/climate modelling. © 2017 The Author(s).

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Solar radiation and functional traits explain the decline of forest primary productivity along a tropical elevation gradient

Fyllas N.M., Bentley L.P., Shenkin A., Asner G.P., Atkin O.K., Díaz S., Enquist B.J., Farfan-Rios W., Gloor E., Guerrieri R., Huasco W.H., Ishida Y., Martin R.E., Meir P., Phillips O., Salinas N., Silman M., Weerasinghe L.K., Zaragoza-Castells J., Malhi Y. (2017) Solar radiation and functional traits explain the decline of forest primary productivity along a tropical elevation gradient. Ecology Letters. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/ele.12771

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One of the major challenges in ecology is to understand how ecosystems respond to changes in environmental conditions, and how taxonomic and functional diversity mediate these changes. In this study, we use a trait-spectra and individual-based model, to analyse variation in forest primary productivity along a 3.3 km elevation gradient in the Amazon-Andes. The model accurately predicted the magnitude and trends in forest productivity with elevation, with solar radiation and plant functional traits (leaf dry mass per area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, and wood density) collectively accounting for productivity variation. Remarkably, explicit representation of temperature variation with elevation was not required to achieve accurate predictions of forest productivity, as trait variation driven by species turnover appears to capture the effect of temperature. Our semi-mechanistic model suggests that spatial variation in traits can potentially be used to estimate spatial variation in productivity at the landscape scale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

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The fate of recently fixed carbon after drought release: Towards unravelling C storage regulation in Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris

Galiano, L., Timofeeva, G., Saurer, M., Siegwolf, R., Martínez-Vilalta, J., Hommel, R., Gessler, A. (2017) The fate of recently fixed carbon after drought release: Towards unravelling C storage regulation in Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris. Plant Cell and Environment. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/pce.12972

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Diversification in arid mountains: biogeography and cryptic diversity of Pristurus rupestris rupestris in Arabia

Garcia-Porta, J., Simó-Riudalbas, M., Robinson, M., Carranza, S. (2017) Diversification in arid mountains: biogeography and cryptic diversity of Pristurus rupestris rupestris in Arabia. Journal of Biogeography. 44: 1694-1704.
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Doi: 10.1111/jbi.12929

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Contrasting effects of fire severity on the regeneration of pinus halepensis mill. And resprouter species in recently thinned thickets

García-Jiménez, R., Palmero-Iniesta, M., Espelta, J.M. (2017) Contrasting effects of fire severity on the regeneration of pinus halepensis mill. And resprouter species in recently thinned thickets. Forests. 8: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.3390/f8030055

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Impact of soil warming on the plant metabolome of Icelandic grasslands

Gargallo-Garriga A., Ayala-Roque M., Sardans J., Bartrons M., Granda V., Sigurdsson B.D., Leblans N.I.W., Oravec M., Urban O., Janssens I.A., Peñuelas J. (2017) Impact of soil warming on the plant metabolome of Icelandic grasslands. Metabolites. 7: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.3390/metabo7030044

Abstract:

Climate change is stronger at high than at temperate and tropical latitudes. The natural geothermal conditions in southern Iceland provide an opportunity to study the impact of warming on plants, because of the geothermal bedrock channels that induce stable gradients of soil temperature. We studied two valleys, one where such gradients have been present for centuries (long-term treatment), and another where new gradients were created in 2008 after a shallow crustal earthquake (short-term treatment). We studied the impact of soil warming (0 to +15° C) on the foliar metabolomes of two common plant species of high northern latitudes: Agrostis capillaris, a monocotyledon grass; and Ranunculus acris, a dicotyledonous herb, and evaluated the dependence of shifts in their metabolomes on the length of the warming treatment. The two species responded differently to warming, depending on the length of exposure. The grass metabolome clearly shifted at the site of long-term warming, but the herb metabolome did not. The main up-regulated compounds at the highest temperatures at the long-term site were saccharides and amino acids, both involved in heat-shock metabolic pathways. Moreover, some secondary metabolites, such as phenolic acids and terpenes, associated with a wide array of stresses, were also up-regulated. Most current climatic models predict an increase in annual average temperature between 2–8° C over land masses in the Arctic towards the end of this century. The metabolomes of A. capillaris and R. acris shifted abruptly and nonlinearly to soil warming >5° C above the control temperature for the coming decades. These results thus suggest that a slight warming increase may not imply substantial changes in plant function, but if the temperature rises more than 5° C, warming may end up triggering metabolic pathways associated with heat stress in some plant species currently dominant in this region. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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Long-term fertilization determines different metabolomic profiles and responses in saplings of three rainforest tree species with different adult canopy position

Gargallo-Garriga A., Wright S.J., Sardans J., Pérez-Trujillo M., Oravec M., Večeřová K., Urban O., Fernández-Martónez M., Parella T., Penuelas J. (2017) Long-term fertilization determines different metabolomic profiles and responses in saplings of three rainforest tree species with different adult canopy position. PLoS ONE. 12: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177030

Abstract:

Background Tropical rainforests are frequently limited by soil nutrient availability. However, the response of the metabolic phenotypic plasticity of trees to an increase of soil nutrient availabilities is poorly understood. We expected that increases in the ability of a nutrient that limits some plant processes should be detected by corresponding changes in plant metabolome profile related to such processes. Methodology/Principal findings We studied the foliar metabolome of saplings of three abundant tree species in a 15 year field NPK fertilization experiment in a Panamanian rainforest. The largest differences were among species and explained 75% of overall metabolome variation. The saplings of the large canopy species, Tetragastris panamensis, had the lowest concentrations of all identified amino acids and the highest concentrations of most identified secondary compounds. The saplings of the amid canopyo species, Alseis blackiana, had the highest concentrations of amino acids coming from the biosynthesis pathways of glycerate-3P, oxaloacetate and - ketoglutarate, and the saplings of the low canopy species, Heisteria concinna, had the highest concentrations of amino acids coming from the pyruvate synthesis pathways. Conclusions/Significance The changes in metabolome provided strong evidence that different nutrients limit different species in different ways. With increasing P availability, the two canopy species shifted their metabolome towards larger investment in protection mechanisms, whereas with increasing N availability, the sub-canopy species increased its primary metabolism. The results highlighted the proportional distinct use of different nutrients by different species and the resulting different metabolome profiles in this high diversity community are consistent with the ecological niche theory. © 2017 Gargallo-Garriga et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Ethnobotany, Phylogeny, and ‘Omics’ for Human Health and Food Security

Garnatje, T., Peñuelas, J., Vallès, J. (2017) Ethnobotany, Phylogeny, and ‘Omics’ for Human Health and Food Security. Trends in Plant Science. 22: 187-191.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2017.01.001

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Reaffirming 'Ethnobotanical Convergence'

Garnatje, T., Peñuelas, J., Vallès, J. (2017) Reaffirming 'Ethnobotanical Convergence'. Trends in Plant Science. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2017.06.001

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Movement behavior of a tropical mammal: The case of Tapirus terrestris

González, T.M., González-Trujillo, J.D., Palmer, J.R.B., Pino, J., Armenteras, D. (2017) Movement behavior of a tropical mammal: The case of Tapirus terrestris. Ecological Modelling. 360: 223-229.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.07.006

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