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Monitoring and deposition trends in Spain, including Saharan dust [Monitorización y tendencias de la deposición de N en España, incluyendo polvo sahariano]

Avila A., Aguillaume L. (2017) Monitoring and deposition trends in Spain, including Saharan dust [Monitorización y tendencias de la deposición de N en España, incluyendo polvo sahariano]. Ecosistemas. 26: 16-24.
Link
Doi: 10.7818/ECOS.2017.26-1.04

Abstract:

The chemical composition of the atmosphere has significantly changed in the last century, mostly due to increased emissions of gases and particles derived from human activities. Several studies have analyzed the trends in the chemical composition of rainwater and atmospheric deposition in recent decades in central and northern Europe. However, for Spain there is a lack of studies at national level. Up to now, analyses of decadal trends are only available from a few individual stations. In this paper we first present the different methods to measure atmospheric deposition. Then we compile a list of atmospheric deposition monitoring stations in Spain and review the available time series, for series longer than 10 years, with special attention to the trends of N, S and African dust. Finally, we indicate future research directions to fill the gaps in knowledge about patterns and trends of atmospheric deposition at a national level. © 2017 Los Autores. Editado por la AEET.

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Some mixotrophic flagellate species selectively graze on archaea

Ballen-Segura, M., Felip, M., Catalan, J. (2017) Some mixotrophic flagellate species selectively graze on archaea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 83: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1128/AEM.02317-16

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Relative contribution of groundwater to plant transpiration estimated with stable isotopes

Barbeta A., Peñuelas J. (2017) Relative contribution of groundwater to plant transpiration estimated with stable isotopes. Scientific Reports. 7: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09643-x

Abstract:

Water stored underground in the saturated and subsurface zones below the soil are important sources of water for plants in water-limited ecosystems. The presence of deep-rooted plants worldwide, however, suggests that the use of groundwater is not restricted to arid and seasonally dry ecosystems. We compiled the available data (71 species) on the relative contribution of groundwater to plant water estimated using stable isotopes and mixing models, which provided information about relative groundwater use, and analyzed their variation across different climates, seasons, plant types, edaphic conditions, and landscape positions. Plant use of groundwater was more likely at sites with a pronounced dry season, and represented on average 49 per cent of transpired water in dry seasons and 28 per cent in wet seasons. The relative contribution of groundwater to plant-water uptake was higher on rocky substrates (saprolite, fractured bedrock), which had reduced groundwater uptake when this source was deep belowground. In addition, we found that the connectivity between groundwater pools and plant water may be quantitatively larger and more widespread than reported by recent global estimations based on isotopic averaged values. Earth System Models should account for the feedbacks between transpiration and groundwater recharge. © 2017 The Author(s).

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Increasing carbon discrimination rates and depth of water uptake favor the growth of Mediterranean evergreen trees in the ecotone with temperate deciduous forests

Barbeta, A., Peñuelas, J. (2017) Increasing carbon discrimination rates and depth of water uptake favor the growth of Mediterranean evergreen trees in the ecotone with temperate deciduous forests. Global Change Biology. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/gcb.13770

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Cumulative effects of fire and drought in Mediterranean ecosystems

Batllori E., Dećaceres M., Brotons L., Ackerly D.D., Moritz M.A., Lloret F. (2017) Cumulative effects of fire and drought in Mediterranean ecosystems. Ecosphere. 8: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1906

Abstract:

The occurrence of multiple disturbances can jointly affect the recovery capacity of ecosystems, potentially leading to changes in vegetation dynamics or loss of resilience. The effects of interacting disturbances on ecosystems are, however, not well understood. We use a model system based on Mediterraneantype ecosystems (MTEs) to examine how the interplay between vegetation regeneration traits and compound, stochastic disturbances modulate ecosystem dynamics. We developed a state-and-transition simulation model including two tree species with contrasting regeneration strategies (seeder vs. resprouter) and a shrubland formation. We aim to assess potential compositional switches under contrasted scenarios of compound fire-drought regimes, and to characterize the cumulative effects of fire-drought (synergism vs. antagonism) relative to the effects of individual disturbance regimes. Our simulation results indicate that interaction between moderate fire and sporadic drought recurrence-as opposed to chronic dryness-can act as a strong mechanism generating highly heterogeneous landscapes in which different regeneration types coexist, as observed in MTEs. Resprouters dominated under individual, moderate disturbance regimes of fire or drought, whereas the interaction of the two disturbances promoted the longterm coexistence of both tree regeneration strategies. However, shrubland expansion and persistence at the expanse of forests was favored by increases in drought recurrence and associated fire-drought interactions, highlighting the potential for important vegetation changes in MTEs under climate change. Overall, the cumulative effects of fire and drought can lead to distinct landscape configurations under moderate disturbance regimes that are otherwise only attained under high frequency of individual disturbances. At the ecosystem level, however, we suggest that disturbance-induced vegetation dynamics can modify vegetation sensitivity and resilience to further disturbances precluding the prevalence of synergistic effects of the two disturbances. © 2017 Batllori et al.

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Potential relocation of climatic environments suggests high rates of climate displacement within the North American protection network

Batllori, E., Parisien, M.-A., Parks, S.A., Moritz, M.A., Miller, C. (2017) Potential relocation of climatic environments suggests high rates of climate displacement within the North American protection network. Global Change Biology. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1111/gcb.13663

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A New Psammothidium Species (Bacillariophyta, Achnanthidiaceae) from Cimera Lake (Gredos Mountain Range), Central Spain

Blanco, S., Pla-Rabès, S., Wetzel, C.E., Granados, I. (2017) A New Psammothidium Species (Bacillariophyta, Achnanthidiaceae) from Cimera Lake (Gredos Mountain Range), Central Spain. Cryptogamie, Algologie. 38: 17-29.
Link
Doi: 10.7872/crya/v38.iss1.2017.17

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Inventory, classification and genesis of the ground collapses in the groundwater body of the Western Mancha I [Inventario, clasificación y génesis de los colapsos del terreno en la Masa de Agua Subterránea Mancha Occidental I]

Bórnez Mejías, K., Mejías Moreno, M., Camuñas Palencia, C., Del Pozo Tejado, J., Del Moral Fernández del Rincón, A. (2017) Inventory, classification and genesis of the ground collapses in the groundwater body of the Western Mancha I [Inventario, clasificación y génesis de los colapsos del terreno en la Masa de Agua Subterránea Mancha Occidental I]. Boletin Geologico y Minero. 128: 43-68.
Link
Doi: 10.21701/bolgeomin.128.1.003

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Visualizing dynamic microvillar search and stabilization during ligand detection by T cells

Cai, E., Marchuk, K., Beemiller, P., Beppler, C., Rubashkin, M.G., Weaver, V.M., Gérard, A., Liu, T.-L., Chen, B.-C., Betzig, E., Bartumeus, F., Krummel, M.F. (2017) Visualizing dynamic microvillar search and stabilization during ligand detection by T cells. Science. 356: 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1126/science.aal3118

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Environmental stress effects on reproduction and sexual dimorphism in the gynodioecious species Silene acaulis

Canelles, Q., Saura-Mas, S., Brotons, L., García, M.B., Lloret, F., Villellas, J., Morris, W.F. (2017) Environmental stress effects on reproduction and sexual dimorphism in the gynodioecious species Silene acaulis. Environmental and Experimental Botany. : 0-0.
Link
Doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2017.06.010

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