Peñuelas J, Sardans J, Ogaya R, Estiarte M (2008) Nutrient stoichiometric relations and biogeochemical niche in coexisting plant species: effect of simulated climate change. Polish Journal of Ecology 56: 613-622.
Peñuelas J, Estiarte M, Prieto P, Sardans J, Moreno JM, Torres I, Céspedes B, Pla E, Sabaté S, Gracia C (2008) Impacts on biodiversity of Mediterranean ecosystems. In Settele, J. et al. (eds.) (in prep.): Atlas of Biodiversity Risks - from Europe to the globe, from stories to maps. Pensoft, Sofia & Moscow (www.pensoftonline.net/alarm-atlas-info) pp.76-77.
Estiarte M, Peñuelas J, Sardans J, Emmett BA, Sowerby A, Beier C, Schmidt IK, Tietema A, Van Meeteres MJM, Kovacs Lang E, Mathe P, De Angelis P, De Dato G (2008) Root-surface phosphatase activity in shrublands across a European gradient: Effects of warming. Journal Environmental Biology 29: 25-29.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J. (2008) Drought changes nutrient sources, content and stoichiometry in the bryophyte Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. growing in a Mediterranean forest. Journal of Bryology. 30: 59-65.EnlaceDoi: 10.1179/174328208X281987
We conducted a 6 year field experiment in an evergreen Quercus ilex forest where we simulated the increased drought projected by Global Circulation Models (GCM) and ecophysiological models for the immediate decades. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced drought will change C, N, P, K, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mo and S concentrations of the widespread moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. and its capacity to absorb nutrients of soil-borne or airborne origin. During the period of study, from 1999 to 2005, the soil moisture in the drought treatment was on average 9% lower than the soil moisture in the control plots. Drought increased the K concentration by 10% and the C concentration by 6%, and decreased the Fe and Mo concentrations by 33% and 18%, respectively, and the N/P content ratio by 15%. A principal component analysis showed that 69% of the variation in moss elemental concentrations is explained by the drought treatment. Drought increased the enrichment factors of several elements, mainly of P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Mo, relative to bedrock extracts, thus showing that the proportion of these elements absorbed from the atmosphere had been increased by drought. The results show that drought increased the concentration of elements linked to drought resistance such as C and K, and decreased the contents of others important for plant productivity such as Mo and Fe. Drought thereby changed moss stoichiometry, and this could also affect the palatability and quite probably, the moss-herbivore relationships and decomposition rates. © British Bryological Society 2008.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J., Estiarte M. (2008) Changes in soil enzymes related to C and N cycle and in soil C and N content under prolonged warming and drought in a Mediterranean shrubland. Applied Soil Ecology. 39: 223-235.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2007.12.011
In a Mediterranean shrubland, we investigated the effects of the projected warming and drought on soil urease, protease and β-glucosidase activities and the relation of the possible changes in the activities of these enzymes with the observed changes in soil moisture, soil pH and in C and N stocks in soils, leaves and leaf litter during 1 year (April 2004-May 2005). This investigation was conducted in a long-term experiment of warming and drought manipulation that began in 1999 and is lasting until now. Warming increased soil urease activity by 10% in the study period, mainly by increasing soil urease activity 30% in winter and 10% in spring, and increased β-glucosidase activity 38% in spring. Soil urease and β-glucosidase activities were positively correlated with soil temperatures in winter and negatively in summer. Warming increased soil enzyme activities in winter when soil moisture was highest and in spring coinciding with the greatest biological activity. Warming decreased NH4 + soil concentration in the spring of 2004 (by 30%) and 2005 (by 72%), in consonance with the increase in N uptake by plants. Warming decreased N concentration in Globularia alypum leaf litter, increasing C/N leaf ratio by 30% showing an increase in N mobilization and contributing to a greater total N accumulation in plants. However, the greater NO3 - availability in soil observed under warming, probably by an increase in nitrification, may lead to a net N loss by leaching under the torrential rainfalls typical of the Mediterranean climate regions. Drought reduced soil protease activity (9%) in the study period, mainly by decreasing it in spring by 13-21%, but did not affect N soil contents because N turn-over reduction was counterbalanced by a decrease in N leaf concentrations. Soil protease activity was positively correlated with soil water content showing a strong dependence of this enzyme on soil water content. Drought did not affect β-glucosidase activity but tended to increase C contents in soils, which together with the increase in C/N in leaves indicate a reduction of C turn-over and a trend to increase C stocks in soil at long term. The effects of warming and drought on soil enzyme activities were due to a direct effect on soil temperature and soil water content, respectively, and not to changes on soil organic matter quantity and nutritional quality. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J., Estiarte M. (2008) Warming and drought change trace element bioaccumulation patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland. Chemosphere. 70: 874-885.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.06.085
A field experiment consisting of drought and warming manipulation was conducted in a Mediterranean shrubland dominated by the shrubs Erica multiflora and Globularia alypum. The aim was to investigate the effects of the climatic changes predicted by IPCC models for the coming decades on trace element concentration and accumulation in aboveground biomass, plant litter, and soil. Warming increased concentrations and aboveground accumulation of some trace elements related to plant root uptake, such as Al, As, Cr, Cu, and partially Pb. This effect was more general in E. multiflora than in G. alypum. The stronger effects were increases in Al leaf concentrations (42%) and aboveground accumulation (500 g ha-1) in E. multiflora, in As stem biomass accumulation (0.2 g ha-1) in E. multiflora, and in Cr leaf concentrations (51%) in G. alypum and stem aboveground accumulation in E. multiflora (1.1 g ha-1). These species-specific increases were related to greater retranslocation, photosynthetic capacity and growth in E. multiflora than in G. alypum. Warming decreased the concentrations of some trace elements in leaf litter, implying the existence of an increased leaf retranslocation. Drought increased As (40%) and Cd (55%) in E. multiflora stems, whereas it decreased Cu (50%) in leaves, Ni (28%) in stems and Pb (32%) in leaf litter of G. alypum. The increasing concentrations of some trace elements in E. multiflora and not in G. alypum were related to a greater growth reduction in E. multiflora than in G. alypum. Warming increased As soil solubility (67%) and decreased total soil As (21%). Those changes were related to a greater Fe mobilization in warming plot and to a greater plant capture. Drought increased Hg (350%) concentrations in soils but had no significant effects on trace element accumulation in aboveground biomass. The different response to warming and drought in the two dominant species implies uneven changes in the quality of the plant tissues that may have implications for herbivores. This may be specially important for the performance of the studied Mediterranean ecosystems under the warmer and drier conditions predicted by the next decades by the GCM and ecophysiological models. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J., Estiarte M., Prieto P. (2008) Erratum: Warming and drought alter C and N concentration, allocation and accumulation in a Mediterranean shrubland (Global Change Biology). Global Change Biology. 14: 2771-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01717.x
[No abstract available]
Sardans J., Peñuelas J., Ogaya R. (2008) Drought's impact on Ca, Fe, Mg, Mo and S concentration and accumulation patterns in the plants and soil of a Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex forest. Biogeochemistry. 87: 49-69.EnlaceDoi: 10.1007/s10533-007-9167-2
We conducted a 6-year field manipulation drought experiment in an evergreen Quercus ilex forest where we simulated the drought predicted by GCM and ecophysiological models for the coming decades (an average of 15% soil moisture reduction). We thereby tested the hypothesis that enhanced drought will change Ca, Fe, Mg, Mo and S availability, concentrations and accumulation patterns in Mediterranean ecosystems. The strongest effects of drought occurred in the soil. Drought increased the total soil concentrations of S, the soil extract concentrations of Fe, Mg and S, the Mg saturation in the soil exchangeable complex and tended to increase the percentage base saturation of the soil exchangeable complex. These increased soil concentrations were related to a decrease of plant uptake capacity and not to an increase of soil enzyme activity, which in fact decreased under drier conditions. Drought increased leaf Mg concentrations in the three dominant species although only significantly in Quercus ilex and Arbutus unedo (20 and 14%, respectively). In contrast, drought tended to decrease Ca in Phillyrea latifolia (18%) and Ca and Fe concentrations in the wood of all three species. Drought increased Ca and Fe concentrations in the roots of Quercus ilex (26 and 127%). There was a slight general trend to decrease total biomass accumulation of nutrients that depend on water flux such as Mg, Fe and S. This effect was related to a decrease of soil moisture that reduced soil flow, and to a decrease in photosynthetic capacity, sap flow, transpiration and growth, and therefore plant uptake capacity under drought observed in Quercus ilex and Arbutus unedo. On the contrary, drought increased Mo accumulation in aboveground biomass in Phillyrea latifolia and reduced Mo accumulation in Arbutus unedo by reducing growth and wood Mo concentrations (51%). Phillyrea latifolia showed a great capacity to adapt to drier conditions, with no decrease in growth, an increase of Mo uptake capacity and a decrease in leaf Ca concentration, which was related to a decrease in transpiration under drought. The results indicate asymmetrical changes in species capacity to accumulate these elements, which are likely to produce changes in inter-specific competitive relations among dominant plant species and in their nutritional quality as food sources. The results also indicate that drought tended to decrease nutrient content in aboveground biomass, mainly through the decrease in growth and transpiration of the most sensitive species and caused an increase in the availability of these nutrients in soil. Thus, drought decreased the ecosystem's capacity to retain Mg, Fe and S, facilitating their loss in torrential rainfalls. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J., Prieto P., Estiarte M. (2008) Changes in Ca, Fe, Mg, Mo, Na, and S content in a Mediterranean shrubland under warming and drought. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 113: 0-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1029/2008JG000795
In an evergreen Mediterranean shrubland we conducted a 6-year field experiment simulating the warming and drought projected by general circulation models and ecophysiological models for the next decades: 20% reduction of soil moisture and 1°C of temperature increase. We tested whether warming and drought have effects on Ca, Fe, Mg, Mo, Na and S availability, concentrations and accumulation patterns in the three dominant plant species and in soil. Warming increased concentrations of Ca and Mo in leaves in Erica multiflora (42% and 65%, respectively) and in Dorycnium pentaphyllum (38% and 60%, respectively). Warming increased Mo accumulation in leaves and aboveground biomass in Globularia alypum (0.07 and 0.40 g ha-1) and in E. multiflora (0.12 and 0.4 g ha-1), and increased Fe accumulation in stem biomass of G. alypum (600 g ha-1), increasing the capacity to retain these nutrients in the ecosystem. The increase of Fe and Mo capture capacity under warming conditions was greater in G. alypum than in E. multiflora coinciding with its greater increases in photosynthetic capacity. Warming decreased soil total-Fe concentration by 24% and increased Mg accumulation in soil exchange complex by 19%. Drought increased Na leaf and stem concentrations (93% and 50%, respectively) and accumulation in leaf and aboveground biomass (780 and 800 g ha-1, respectively) in G. alypum, allowing an increase of osmotic pressure which helps to prevent water losses and is related to its capacity to resist drought. Drought reduced S leaf and Mg leaf-litter concentrations of G. alypum and increased them in leaves of E. multiflora and also increased Mo and Na concentrations in leaves of D. pentaphyllum. Drought increased Fe soil solubility by 65%. The results indicate different effects of climate change on nutrient status in the ecosystem depending on whether the main change is warming or drought. The changes in concentration and biomass accumulation were different depending on the nutrient and the species, changing the stoichiometry among these nutrients and modifying the nutritional quality of plant tissues. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J., Prieto P., Estiarte M. (2008) Drought and warming induced changes in P and K concentration and accumulation in plant biomass and soil in a Mediterranean shrubland. Plant and Soil. 306: 261-271.EnlaceDoi: 10.1007/s11104-008-9583-7
A field experiment involving drought and warming manipulation was conducted over a 6-year period in a Mediterranean shrubland to simulate the climate conditions projected by IPCC models for the coming decades (20% decreased soil moisture and 1°C warming). We investigated P and K concentration and accumulation in the leaves and stems of the dominant species, and in soil. Drought decreased P concentration in Globularia alypum leaves (21%) and in Erica multiflora stems (30%) and decreased K concentration in the leaves of both species (20% and 29%, respectively). The general decrease of P and K concentration in drought plots was due to the reduction of soil water content, soil and root phosphatase activity and photosynthetic capacity that decreased plant uptake capacity. Warming increased P concentration in Erica multiflora leaves (42%), but decreased it in the stems and leaf litter of Erica multiflora and the leaf litter (33%) of Globularia alypum, thereby demonstrating that warming improved the P retranslocation and allocation from stem to leaves. These results correlate with the increase in photosynthetic capacity and growth of these two dominant shrub species in warming plots. Drought and warming had no significant effects on biomass P accumulation in the period 1999-2005, but drought increased K accumulation in aboveground biomass (10 kg ha-1) in Globularia alypum due to the increase in K concentration in stems. The stoichiometric changes produced by the different responses of the nutrients led to changes in the P/K concentration ratio in Erica multiflora leaves, stems and litter, and in Globularia alypum stems and litter. This may have implications for the nutritional value of these plant species and plant-herbivore relationships. The effects of climate change on P and K concentrations and contents in Mediterranean ecosystems will differ depending on whether the main component of change is drought or warming. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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