Sardans J, Montes F, Peñuelas J (2011) Seguint la traça als elements traça. UABdivulga 10/2011
Sardans J, Peñuelas J, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Llusià J (2011) The world's largest database on wild plants is published. UABdivulga 09/2011.
Peñuelas J, Filella I, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Llusià J, Sardans J, Jump A, Curiel J, Carnicer J, Rutishauser T, Rico L, Keenan T, Garbulsky M, Coll M, Diaz de Quijano M, Seco R, Rivas-Ubach A, Silva J, Boada M, Stefanescu C, Lloret F, Terradas J (2011) Llebot E. (ed). Impactes, vulnerabilitat i retroalimentacions climàtiques als ecosistemes terrestres catalans. Segon informe sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya. Institut d'Estudis Catalans i Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona, pp. 373-407.
Kattge J., Diaz S., Lavorel S., Prentice I.C., Leadley P., Bonisch G., Garnier E., Westoby M., Reich P.B., Wright I.J., Cornelissen J.H.C., Violle C., Harrison S.P., Van Bodegom P.M., Reichstein M., Enquist B.J., Soudzilovskaia N.A., Ackerly D.D., Anand M., Atkin O., Bahn M., Baker T.R., Baldocchi D., Bekker R., Blanco C.C., Blonder B., Bond W.J., Bradstock R., Bunker D.E., Casanoves F., Cavender-Bares J., Chambers J.Q., Chapin F.S., Chave J., Coomes D., Cornwell W.K., Craine J.M., Dobrin B.H., Duarte L., Durka W., Elser J., Esser G., Estiarte M., Fagan W.F., Fang J., Fernandez-Mendez F., Fidelis A., Finegan B., Flores O., Ford H., Frank D., Freschet G.T., Fyllas N.M., Gallagher R.V., Green W.A., Gutierrez A.G., Hickler T., Higgins S.I., Hodgson J.G., Jalili A., Jansen S., Joly C.A., Kerkhoff A.J., Kirkup D., Kitajima K., Kleyer M., Klotz S., Knops J.M.H., Kramer K., Kuhn I., Kurokawa H., Laughlin D., Lee T.D., Leishman M., Lens F., Lenz T., Lewis S.L., Lloyd J., Llusia J., Louault F., Ma S., Mahecha M.D., Manning P., Massad T., Medlyn B.E., Messier J., Moles A.T., Muller S.C., Nadrowski K., Naeem S., Niinemets U., Nollert S., Nuske A., Ogaya R., Oleksyn J., Onipchenko V.G., Onoda Y., Ordonez J., Overbeck G., Ozinga W.A., Patino S., Paula S., Pausas J.G., Penuelas J., Phillips O.L., Pillar V., Poorter H., Poorter L., Poschlod P., Prinzing A., Proulx R., Rammig A., Reinsch S., Reu B., Sack L., Salgado-Negret B., Sardans J., Shiodera S., Shipley B., Siefert A., Sosinski E., Soussana J.-F., Swaine E., Swenson N., Thompson K., Thornton P., Waldram M., Weiher E., White M., White S., Wright S.J., Yguel B., Zaehle S., Zanne A.E., Wirth C. (2011) TRY - a global database of plant traits. Global Change Biology. 17: 2905-2935.EnlaceDoi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02451.x
Plant traits - the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs - determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69000 out of the world's 300000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation - but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Peñuelas J., Sardans J., Llusia J., Owen S.M., Niinemets Ü. (2011) Lower p contents and more widespread terpene presence in old bornean than in young hawaiian tropical plant species guilds. Ecosphere. 2: 0-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1890/ES10-00185.1
Leaf elemental and secondary metabolite contents and morphological traits are important measures of time-dependent ecosystem changes. We aimed to test whether plants from older tropical forests have lower nutrient contents and different elemental stoichiometry than plants from younger ecosystems (" soil age" hypothesis) and whether they had different contents of carbon based secondary compounds (CBSC) and morphological traits as a result of a longer evolution under tropical conditions.We conducted a phylogeny-independent study of the foliar chemical and structural traits in two sets of 86 species each measured in two different-aged tropical forests, a young soil forest in Hawaii and an old soil forest in Borneo. The leaf contents of nutrients and micronutrients tended to be higher in Hawaii than in Borneo but leaf N:P content ratio was not different. The " soil age" hypothesis was thus only partially supported by the results indicating that several other factors influence plant elemental content. Total phenolic content was twice larger in Hawaiian than in Bornean plant species. Terpene contents were not different in terpene-containing species but the percentage of species containing terpenes was much higher in Borneo (97%) than in Hawaii (34%) suggesting that the longer time of evolution in Borneo has allowed a more widespread development of very diverse defensive, allelopatic and information relationships of plants with specialist herbivores and other plants. Principal component analyses separated Hawaii and Borneo species on the basis of leaf elemental composition, total phenolics and terpene contents and leaf dry mass per area (LMA). The results collectively support the " leaf economic spectrum" and " carbon excess" paradigms because in both sets of species and also in the combined set of Borneo and Hawaiian species, there are negative relationships of N content with LMA and total phenolics. The results suggest thus that changes throughout time in N and P availability can be important but do not explain all the variability underlying the evolutionary changes in leaf chemistry and structure in these tropical forests. Other factors determining species biogeochemical niche such as K, Mg or S elemental stoichiometry, leaf economic traits and changes in plant defence and communication strategy are also likely to be involved. © 2011 Peñuelas et al.
Sardans J., Montes F., Peñuelas J. (2011) Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry to determine as, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb in soils and sediments: A review and perspectives. Soil and Sediment Contamination. 20: 447-491.EnlaceDoi: 10.1080/15320383.2011.571526
Environmental pollution from trace elements has been increasing in recent decades and has become an important concern for environmental agencies. The trace elements arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, and lead are among the elements that cause the greatest environmental impact and carry the highest risk to human health. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has long been employed in trace element determination. In the last few years the main constraints of spectroscopy absorption methods have been overcome. These advances have increased the possibilities and the utility of ETAAS for trace element determination at μg L-1 levels in difficult matrices such as soils and sediments, giving greater accuracy and precision, lower economic cost, and easier sample pretreatment than other methods. The main advances come from sample manipulation for matrix destruction and preconcentration, the use of new lab-on-valve FIA systems, the solid sampling, the use of new, more efficient modifiers and in situ trapping methods for analyte stabilization and pre-concentration, and the progress in the capacity to control the atomization temperature and to correct background spectral interferences. All of them have permitted an improvement in the sensitivity, decreasing the detection limits and manipulation process, and increasing the accuracy and precision of the analyses. Moreover, the new technology in the optic and detector systems have given rise to high-resolution continuum source ETAAS (HR-CS ETAAS) spectrometers that solve most of the constraints presented by the more conventional line source ETAAS (LS ETAAS) spectrometers. HR-CS ETAAS enables a rapid detection of several elements at once, facilitates direct determination from solid sampling, and reduces the matrix interferences and background noise. Here we give an overview of the recent advances and the different possibilities of using ETAAS, drawing on studies from the last decade on methods to analyze As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb in soils and sediments. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Sardans J., Peñuelas J., Rivas-Ubach A. (2011) Ecological metabolomics: Overview of current developments and future challenges. Chemoecology. 21: 191-225.EnlaceDoi: 10.1007/s00049-011-0083-5
Ecometabolomics, which aims to analyze the metabolome, the total number of metabolites and its shifts in response to environmental changes, is gaining importance in ecological studies because of the increasing use of new technical advances, such as modern HNMR spectrometers and GC-MS coupled to bioinformatic advances. We review here the state of the art and the perspectives of ecometabolomics. The studies available demonstrate ecometabolomic techniques have great sensitivity in detecting the phenotypic mechanisms and key molecules underlying organism responses to abiotic environmental changes to biotic interactions. But such studies are still scarce, and in most cases they are limited to the direct effects of a single abiotic factor or of biotic interactions between two trophic levels under controlled conditions. Several exciting challenges remain to be achieved through the use of ecometabolomics in field conditions, involving more than two trophic levels, or combining the effects of abiotic gradients with intra- and inter-specific relationships. The coupling of ecometabolomic studies with genomics, transcriptomics, ecosystem stoichiometry, community biology and biogeochemistry may provide a further step forward in many areas of ecological sciences, including stress responses, species lifestyle, life history variation, population structure, trophic interaction, nutrient cycling, ecological niche and global change. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.
Sardans J., Rivas-Ubach A., Peñuelas J. (2011) Factors affecting nutrient concentration and stoichiometry of forest trees in Catalonia (NE Spain). Forest Ecology and Management. 262: 2024-2034.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2011.08.019
Although some studies have observed significant correlations between latitude and climate gradients and tree leaf nutrient concentration and stoichiometry, others have not. This study examined the nutrient concentrations of tree leaves in 3530 plots of the Catalonian Forest Inventory. Catalonia is a Mediterranean region located in NE Iberian Peninsula. It has a long land-use history and includes the large industrial-urban area of Barcelona but still contains a large forest area (42%). In the forests of Catalonia, leaf nutrient concentration increased and leaf C:nutrient ratios decreased from south to north, which paralleled the increase in MAP (mean annual precipitation) and the decrease in MAT (mean annual temperature), which was expected in a Mediterranean climate where the availability of water is the most limiting factor for plant nutrient uptake. In addition, the availability of water, which influences productivity, was associated with low leaf N:P content ratios, which is consistent with the Growth Rate Hypothesis. At a regional scale, the results support the Soil-Age Hypothesis because the youngest soils in the Pyrenees had the lowest leaf N:P ratios. Furthermore, the type of forest (evergreen, deciduous, or coniferous) explained some of the variation in leaf nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry. Nutrient concentrations were highest in deciduous trees and lowest in coniferous trees. Leaf nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry were mainly correlated with climate, but other factors such as the chemical properties of soil and rock, phylogenetics, and different ecological histories and anthropogenic factors such as pollution, had an effect. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Yuste J.C., Peñuelas J., Estiarte M., Garcia-Mas J., Mattana S., Ogaya R., Pujol M., Sardans J. (2011) Drought-resistant fungi control soil organic matter decomposition and its response to temperature. Global Change Biology. 17: 1475-1486.EnlaceDoi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02300.x
Microbial-mediated decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) ultimately makes a considerable contribution to soil respiration, which is typically the main source of CO2 arising from terrestrial ecosystems. Despite this central role in the decomposition of SOM, few studies have been conducted on how climate change may affect the soil microbial community and, furthermore, on how possible climate-change induced alterations in the ecology of microbial communities may affect soil CO2 emissions. Here we present the results of a seasonal study on soil microbial community structure, SOM decomposition and its temperature sensitivity in two representative Mediterranean ecosystems where precipitation/throughfall exclusion has taken place during the last 10 years. Bacterial and fungal diversity was estimated using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Our results show that fungal diversity was less sensitive to seasonal changes in moisture, temperature and plant activity than bacterial diversity. On the other hand, fungal communities showed the ability to dynamically adapt throughout the seasons. Fungi also coped better with the 10 years of precipitation/throughfall exclusion compared with bacteria. The high resistance of fungal diversity to changes with respect to bacteria may open the controversy as to whether future 'drier conditions' for Mediterranean regions might favor fungal dominated microbial communities. Finally, our results indicate that the fungal community exerted a strong influence over the temporal and spatial variability of SOM decomposition and its sensitivity to temperature. The results, therefore, highlight the important role of fungi in the decomposition of terrestrial SOM, especially under the harsh environmental conditions of Mediterranean ecosystems, for which models predict even drier conditions in the future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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