Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests

Slik J.W.F., Franklin J., Arroyo-Rodríguez V., Field R., Aguilar S., Aguirre N., Ahumada J., Aiba S.-I., Alves L.F., Anitha K., Avella A., Mora F., Aymard G.A.C., Báez S., Balvanera P., Bastian M.L., Bastin J.-F., Bellingham P.J., Van Den Berg E., Da Conceição Bispo P., Boeckx P., Boehning-Gaese K., Bongers F., Boyle B., Brambach F., Brearley F.Q., Brown S., Chai S.-L., Chazdon R.L., Chen S., Chhang P., Chuyong G., Ewango C., Coronado I.M., Cristóbal-Azkarate J., Culmsee H., Damas K., Dattaraja H.S., Davidar P., DeWalt S.J., DIn H., Drake D.R., Duque A., Durigan G., Eichhorn K., Eler E.S., Enoki T., Ensslin A., Fandohan A.B., Farwig N., Feeley K.J., Fischer M., Forshed O., Garcia Q.S., Garkoti S.C., Gillespie T.W., Gillet J.-F., Gonmadje C., Granzow-De La Cerda I., Griffith D.M., Grogan J., Hakeem K.R., Harris D.J., Harrison R.D., Hector A., Hemp A., Homeier J., Hussain M.S., Ibarra-Manríquez G., Hanum I.F., Imai N., Jansen P.A., Joly C.A., Joseph S., Kartawinata K., Kearsley E., Kelly D.L., Kessler M., Killeen T.J., Kooyman R.M., Laumonier Y., Laurance S.G., Laurance W.F., Lawes M.J., Letcher S.G., Lindsell J., Lovett J., Lozada J., Lu X., Lykke A.M., Bin Mahmud K., Mahayani N.P.D., Mansor A., Marshall A.R., Martin E.H., Matos D.C.L., Meave J.A., Melo F.P.L., Mendoza Z.H.A., Metali F., Medjibe V.P., Metzger J.P., Metzker T., Mohandass D., Munguía-Rosas M.A., Muñoz R., Nurtjahy E., De Oliveira E.L., Onrizal, Parolin P., Parren M., Parthasarathy N., Paudel E., Perez R., Pérez-García E.A., Pommer U., Poorter L., Qi L., Piedade M.T.F., Pinto J.R.R., Poulsen A.D., Poulsen J.R., Powers J.S., Prasad R.C., Puyravaud J.-P., Rangel O., Reitsma J., Rocha D.S.B., Rolim S., Rovero F., Rozak A., Ruokolainen K., Rutishauser E., Rutten G., Mohd Said M.N., Saiter F.Z., Saner P., Santos B., Dos Santos J.R., Sarker S.K., Schmitt C.B., Schoengart J., Schulze M., Sheil D., Sist P., Souza A.F., Spironello W.R., Sposito T., Steinmetz R., Stevart T., Suganuma M.S., Sukri R., Sultana A., Sukumar R., Sunderland T., Supriyadi, Suresh H.S., Suzuki E., Tabarelli M., Tang J., Tanner E.V.J., Targhetta N., Theilade I., Thomas D., Timberlake J., De Morisson Valeriano M., Van Valkenburg J., Van Do T., Van Sam H., Vandermeer J.H., Verbeeck H., Vetaas O.R., Adekunle V., Vieira S.A., Webb C.O., Webb E.L., Whitfeld T., Wich S., Williams J., Wiser S., Wittmann F., Yang X., Yao C.Y.A., Yap S.L., Zahawi R.A., Zakaria R., Zang R. (2018) Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115: 1837-1842.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1073/pnas.1714977115

Resumen:

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests. © 2017 IEEE.

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The bryophyte flora of the Montseny massif (northeastern Iberian Peninsula): Conservation issues and an updated check-list

Sáez L., Ruiz E., Granzow-De La Cerda Í., Brugués M. (2018) The bryophyte flora of the Montseny massif (northeastern Iberian Peninsula): Conservation issues and an updated check-list. Cryptogamie, Bryologie. 39: 3-46.
Enlace
Doi: 10.7872/cryb/v39.iss1.2018.3

Resumen:

An annotated check-list of the bryophytes of the Montseny massif (northeastern Iberian Peninsula) is presented, based on literature and herbarium records revision as well as collections made by the authors. A total of 352 taxa were recorded, out of which three were hornworts, 80 liverworts and 269 mosses. Intensive surveys of original locations of threatened, extinct and protected species in the massif were carried out. Species whose local populations became extinct were those with a strong preference for wet and oligotrophic habitats, such habitats have been severely damaged in recent decades. We discuss possible strategies for effective conservation of those bryophytes whose local population have suffered a decline, like targeted legistation and establishing specific protected areas. © 2018 Adac. Tous droits réservés.

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The state of European research in tropical biology

Cayuela, L., Granzow-de la Cerda, I., Méndez, M. (2017) The state of European research in tropical biology. Biotropica. : 0-0.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/btp.12514

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Wind effects and regeneration in broadleaf and pine stands after hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua

Rossi, E., Granzow-de la Cerda, I., Oliver, C.D., Kulakowski, D. (2017) Wind effects and regeneration in broadleaf and pine stands after hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua. Forest Ecology and Management. 400: 199-207.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2017.05.034

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The role of distance and habitat specificity in bryophyte and perennial seed plant metacommunities in arid scrubland fragments

Granzow-de la Cerda I., Arellano G., Brugués M., Solà-López A. (2016) The role of distance and habitat specificity in bryophyte and perennial seed plant metacommunities in arid scrubland fragments. Journal of Vegetation Science. 27: 414-426.
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Doi: 10.1111/jvs.12364

Resumen:

Questions: What are the relative roles of (1) environmental niche partitioning (especially along soil chemistry gradients), (2) effective dispersal, and (3) landscape characteristics in structuring species assemblies of bryophyte and seed plant metacommunities? Location: Ebro river basin, NE Spain. Methods: We sampled biological soil crust (BSC) bryophytes and perennial seed plants from 54 plots in ten fragments of native vegetation from two contiguous landscapes with contrasting agricultural matrix types. Each plot was characterized with respect to soil electrical conductivity (EC, a proxy for presence of gypsum and halite), pH, vegetation cover and aspect. We used unconstrained ordinations to find the main floristic gradients and evaluated their relationship with environmental variables using Kendall correlations. We studied the spatial structure of floristic dissimilarities for bryophyte and seed plant communities by using multiple regression models on distance matrices (MRM), and individual species' responses by estimating species' densities along environmental gradients. We estimated effective isolation between plots within landscapes by means of partial MRM. Results: We found 60 bryophyte and 57 seed plant species. Compositional dissimilarities were spatially structured. DCA showed clear floristic segregation of the two landscapes. The soil EC gradient was the main variable explaining compositional variation in both plant metacommunities, followed by soil pH. The effect of geographic distance between plots differed significantly between landscapes and matrix types, and was larger for seed plants than for bryophytes. Conclusions: Only a handful of BSC bryophyte species can be regarded as either true gypsofuges or true gypsophiles. Gypsophilous bryophytes are fewer and less strongly associated with gypsum-rich sites than co-existing perennial seed plants. Overall, BSC bryophyte communities vary less over similar distances than corresponding seed plant communities, most likely due to higher dispersal ability. We argue that the topographically complex landscape of a less modified agricultural matrix imposes more 'friction' to bryophyte dispersal than a smoother landscape with a more intensely human-modified matrix. Effective conservation of fragmented arid agricultural landscapes must take into account the sensitivity of the biota to fragment intrinsic conditions, the properties and the management practices that shaped the landscape. © 2016 International Association for Vegetation Science.

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Seedling emergence and growth of Quercus spp. following severe drought effects on a Pinus sylvestris canopy

Galiano L., Martinez-Vilalta J., Eugenio M., Granzow-de la Cerda I., Lloret F. (2013) Seedling emergence and growth of Quercus spp. following severe drought effects on a Pinus sylvestris canopy. Journal of Vegetation Science. 24: 580-588.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2012.01485.x

Resumen:

Questions: We addressed the following questions: (1) did defoliation and die-off of the dominant Pinus sylvestris, induced by an extreme drought episode, favour emergence of other tree species; (2) did the defoliated canopies of P. sylvestris resulting from drought promote radial growth among other pre-existing tree species seedlings under them? Location: P. sylvestris forest in Central Pyrenees (NE Spain) affected by a severe drought in 2004-2005. Methods: Despite increased focus on climate-related forest die-off, studies of the effects on regeneration processes following extreme drought remain scarce. We analysed whether an episode of drought-induced mortality on the dominant P. sylvestris L. may act as a driver of vegetation shift. Seedlings of Quercus humilis Mill. and Q. ilex L. from 27 plots were sampled under P. sylvestris canopies with

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Plant competition and facilitation after extreme drought episodes in Mediterranean shrubland: Does damage to vegetation cover trigger replacement by juniper woodland?

Lloret F., Granzow-de la Cerda I. (2013) Plant competition and facilitation after extreme drought episodes in Mediterranean shrubland: Does damage to vegetation cover trigger replacement by juniper woodland?. Journal of Vegetation Science. 24: 1020-1032.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/jvs.12030

Resumen:

Question: We analyse the contribution of plant-plant interactions, particularly the outcome of plant competition and plant facilitation, on vegetation dynamics as a result of extreme drought episodes. These events will likely become more frequent under climate change, can induce vegetation die-off and alter community dynamics. We study succession in a shrubland that tends to be replaced by juniper (Juniperus phoenicea) woodland. Due to drought, shrubland die-off may result in competition release favouring J. phoenicea juveniles, and accelerating shrubland replacement. Alternatively, deleterious abiotic stress may increase after loss of vegetation cover protection. Location: Mediterranean coastal shrublands, South Spain (Doñana National Park). Methods: Field estimates of plant growth, production of needle-like leaves, water-use efficiency (WUE; leaf δ13C) and N leaf content of J. phoenicea juveniles in relation to plant size, drought-induced damage, cover and habit characteristics of surrounding vegetation, and drought-induced defoliation of the surrounding vegetation. Results: Juniperus phoenicea juveniles growing beneath a dense vegetation canopy, particularly trees and large shrubs, were less damaged during the extreme drought episode. Plant size correlated negatively with damage. Post-drought growth was higher in juveniles partially released from the vegetation canopy, supporting the existence of a balance between competition and facilitation. Cover of pines, large shrubs and spiny shrubs favoured growth of juveniles. Needle-like juvenile leaves were more abundant in plants covered by the surrounding vegetation or in moderately damaged plants, but less abundant in plants without damage. Higher leaf δ13C values - indicating water stress - were measured in plants more damaged by drought and in those without canopy protection, or under vegetation strongly affected by drought. Leaf N content was lower in undamaged plants and individuals covered by surrounding vegetation. Conclusion: We did not find evidence that gaps opened by drought promoted growth of the potential replacing J. phoenicea. Thus, drought-induced enhancement of successional replacement of shrublands with woodlands was not supported; instead, our findings foresee shrubland prevalence under future climate change conditions. Plant facilitation will play a relevant role in this process. Thus, we herein extend the relevance of plant-plant interactions to extreme drought episodes related to climate change, highlighting their role as drivers of community dynamics. © 2012 International Association for Vegetation Science.

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Tree mortality following ENSO-associated fires and drought in lowland rain forests of Eastern Nicaragua

Granzow-de la Cerda Í., Lloret F., Ruiz J.E., Vandermeer J.H. (2012) Tree mortality following ENSO-associated fires and drought in lowland rain forests of Eastern Nicaragua. Forest Ecology and Management. 265: 248-257.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2011.10.034

Resumen:

Occurrence of fires is an unusual event in many tropical terra firma rain forests, in particular those in Mesoamerica. As a result of the unusually intense ENSO event of 1998/1999, these forests were subjected to a prolonged drought that favored the propagation of extensive fires. In the lowland rain forests of the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, fires were mostly low-intensity leaf litter fires, but they produced high tree mortality. Data from 5 to 17. years of study of permanent plots/transects from four sites were used to investigate whether survival following the ENSO drought episode and subsequent fires may be affected by factors such as successional status, tree size, taxonomic identity or growth rate. The study included two sites that burned in their entirety, one that had only part of its area burned and a fourth site that was not affected by fire. Overall, tree survival was lower in burned plots, and remained low in those plots for at least 2. years after fires, especially among pioneer and mature forest species. Mortality experience between burnt and unburned plots differed widely among the 15 most abundant species. The 38 most abundant species were grouped into five guilds corresponding to their ecological successional status: (1) pioneers; (2) subcanopy/understory heliophiles; (3) canopy heliophiles; (4) subcanopy mature forests species; (5) canopy mature forest species. All guilds experienced significantly lower survival in plots that burned in mortality among guilds were between significant differences. The only the canopy mature forest species and the pioneers, which had the highest mortality. Two years after fire, survival remained significantly lower in burnt plots than in plots that had not burned, but the pattern of mortality was quite different. Both mature forests species guilds had significantly higher mortality than heliophile guilds. Tree size had an overall significant positive effect on survival after fires particularly among subcanopy and canopy mature forest species guilds. However, in unburned sites, survival was negatively correlated to tree size in mature forest guilds. While relative growth rate had no overall significant effect in plots that burned, faster growth was positively correlated with survival in particular guilds such as in pioneers and canopy heliophiles. Delayed mortality increased with relative growth rate for pioneers but decreased for subcanopy heliophiles. The effect of the ENSO event drought resulted in a significantly reduced overall survival caused by high mortality of pioneers, compared to non-drought years and to other guilds, but non-significant differences in post-drought survival were apparent among the remaining guilds. Individual tree basal area was positively correlated with survival given drought, overall, but particularly in pioneers and mature forest canopy species. Contrary to hurricanes, the delayed mortality and overall damage caused by fires is not conducive to maintaining the structure, diversity and species composition of these forests. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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