Bosch J., Retana J., Cerdá X. (1997) Flowering phenology, floral traits and pollinator composition in a herbaceous Mediterranean plant community. Oecologia. 109: 583-591.EnlaceDoi: 10.1007/s004420050120
The relationships between flowering plants and their insect visitors were studied in a Mediterranean grassland in north-east Spain. Floral traits (size, shape, symmetry, and colour), floral rewards (pollen and nectar), flowering period, and floral visitors were recorded for the 17 most abundant plants in the community. Flowering was year-round, but most species flowered in spring. The three species that flowered after spring had small flowers, but the distribution of floral features (including rewards offered) did not show a strong seasonality. Ants contributed 58.5% to the flower visits recorded. Other frequent visitors were beetles (12%), flies (9.5%), honey bees (6.4%), wild bees (6.4%), and wasps (5.2%). Honey bees were most abundant in April, wild bees from April to July, beetles from May to July, and ants from May to September. The lack of tight plant-insect associations was the rule, with most plant species visited by a rather diverse array of insects representing two or more orders. The plant species having narrower spectra of visitors either had flower rewards exposed or attracted mostly illegitimate visitors. By means of correspondence analysis four categories of plants were defined according to their main groups of visitors: (1) honey bees and large wild bees: (2) large wild bees; (3) ants and beetles; and (4) beetles and small-sized bees. The Mantel test was used to calculate correlations among four matrices representing similarities in visitors attracted, floral morphological traits, pollen-nectar rewards, and blooming time, respectively. In spite of seasonality shown by the different insect groups, results indicate that the observed patterns of visitor distribution among plants were most affected by pollen-nectar rewards.
Cerdà X, Retana J (1997) Links between worker polymorphism and thermal biology in a thermophilic ant species. Oikos 78:467-474.
Cerdà X, Retana J, Cros S (1997) Thermal disruption of transitive hierarchies in Mediterranean ant communities. Journal of Animal Ecology 66:363-374.
Cros S, Retana J, Cerdà X (1997) Spatial and temporal variations in the activity patterns of Mediterranean ant communities. Ecoscience 4:269-278.
Broncano, MJ, Retana J (1997) Importancia de la depredación de semillas en la regeneración postincendio del pino carrasco (Pinus halepensis Mill.). Irati 97, Montes del futuro respuesta ante un mundo en cambio. Mesa 5. pp. 85-89.
Bosch J, Retana J, Ramoneda J, García Del Pino F (1997) Fruiting phenology of carob (Ceratonia siliqua, Cesalpinaceae). Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 44:359-368.
Espelta JM, Retana J, Riba M (1997) Supervivencia y crecimiento de plántulas de encina en función de la intensidad de la luz y la disponibilidad de agua. Irati 97, Montes del futuro respuesta ante un mundo en cambio. Mesa 4. pp. 237-242.
Andrés P, Retana J (1997) Normes tecnològiques de Jardineria i Paisatgisme. Plantes autòctones per a revegetació. Col.laboració amb molts altres autors. Col.legi Oficial d'Enginyers Tècnics Agrícoles i Perits Agrícoles de Catalunya. 24 pp. i 15 Annexos.
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