Munoz A., Bonal R., Espelta J.M. (2014) Acorn - weevil interactions in a mixed-oak forest: Outcomes for larval growth and plant recruitment. Forest Ecology and Management. 322: 98-105.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2014.02.039
Weevils are the most important pre-dispersal acorn predators in the Mediterranean region, where oaks often form mixed forests and different weevil species can coexist. The performance of weevil larvae depends in great extent on their feeding activities inside the infested acorns that, in turn, are known to reduce the viability of acorns. In this paper, we have analysed the interactions among the weevil community and four oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus suber, Quercus faginea and Quercus ilex) coexisting in a Mediterranean mixed-oak forest. DNA sequencing of weevil larvae revealed four different weevil species (Curculio elephas, Curculio glandium, Curculio pellitus and Curculio venosus) infesting the acorns of the four oak species. Oak species differed in acorn size, and weevil species also differed in body size. Weevil species showed some degree of specificity among the four oak species, but specificity was not related to variations in acorn size. By contrast, larval development and seedling recruitment were mostly driven by inter-specific differences in larval and acorn size. Larger seeded species suffered less seed damages by weevils (i.e. embryo predation and cotyledon consumption), thus reducing the impacts of acorn infestation in seedling emergence and seedling size. Larval development for the largest weevil species C. elephas was constrained by cotyledon depletion in all acorn species. Yet, this pattern was not observed for other weevil species. Larval size of the same weevil species also varied among different oak species after controlling for the amount of cotyledon eaten by larvae, thus, variation of other acorn traits among acorn species (e.g. chemical composition) may also have consequences for the performance of weevil larvae. It is likely that other variables operating at population level, such as temporal and spatial changes in acorn production or phenological variations of weevils and oaks, are also implicated in the complex functioning of these outstanding mixed-oak forests where natural regeneration seems to be threatened. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Ortego J., Bonal R., Munoz A., Aparicio J.M. (2014) Extensive pollen immigration and no evidence of disrupted mating patterns or reproduction in a highly fragmented holm oak stand. Journal of Plant Ecology. 7: 384-395.EnlaceDoi: 10.1093/jpe/rtt049
Aims Forest fragmentation and reduced tree population densities can potentially have negative impacts on mating patterns, offspring genetic diversity and reproductive performance. The aim of the present study is to test these hypotheses comparing an extremely fragmented, low tree density (~0.02 trees/ha) holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) stand from Central Spain with a nearby high tree density stand (~50 trees/ha). Methods We genotyped adult trees and seeds from the low-density stand (436 seeds from 15 families) and the high-density stand (404 seeds from 11 families) using nine microsatellite markers. With these data, we performed paternity analyses, determined pollen flow, mating patterns and pollen pool structure, and estimated progeny genetic diversity in both stands. We also studied seed set and production and performed a pollen supplementation experiment to determine whether reduced tree density has limited foreign pollen availability. Important Findings We have found extensive pollen immigration (>75%) into the low tree density stand and Monte Carlo simulations revealed that pollen moves larger distances than expected from null models of random dispersal. Mating patterns and differentiation of pollen pools were similar in the high-density stand and the low-density stand but we found higher inter-annual differentiation of pollen pools in the former. Progeny genetic diversity and self-fertilization rates did not differ between the low-density stand and the high-density stand. Seed set rates were significantly lower in the low-density stand than in the high-density stand and experimental cross-pollen supplementation evidenced that foreign pollen availability is indeed a limiting factor in the former. However, seed crops did not differ between the low-density stand and the high-density stand, indicating that limitation of foreign pollen is not likely to be of great concern in terms of reduced seed production and potential recruitment. Poor forest regeneration due to other ecological and human factors is probably a more important threat for the persistence of fragmented and low tree density stands than reduced pollen flow and only extremely small and isolated tree populations would be expected to suffer severe loss of genetic diversity in the long term. © 2013 The Author.
Peguero G., Bonal R., Espelta J.M. (2014) Variation of predator satiation and seed abortion as seed defense mechanisms across an altitudinal range. Basic and Applied Ecology. 15: 269-276.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.baae.2014.03.006
Predator satiation and seed abortion have been reported as effective mechanisms reducing pre-dispersal seed predation, however, whether they may act simultaneously and whether their contribution to seed defense may spatially vary has been barely addressed. Across the altitudinal range of the dry tropical tree Acacia pennatula we investigated the importance of seed production and seed abortion as defense mechanisms against its pre-dispersal seed predators (Mimosestes spp.). Additionally, we measured the potential relationship between the number of seeds that escaped predation and plant recruitment. Predator satiation was effective since greater fruit production was associated with a lower proportion of predated seeds, while high seed abortion rates were related to increases in larval mortality. Although both mechanisms were present simultaneously, their relative contribution varied considerably across the altitudinal range: predator satiation was favored in the middle parts of the range, where seed production is much higher, whereas seed abortion was particularly relevant at the peripheral sites and especially high at the upper margin. The number of seeds that escaped predation was related to seedling density at plot level, indicating the demographic significance of these defense mechanisms against pre-dispersal seed predation. Overall, these results highlight the importance of considering spatial variability when analyzing seed defense traits and they also suggest considering predator satiation and seed abortion as two complementary mechanisms to reduce seed loss. © 2014 Gesellschaft für Ökologie.
Sunyer P., Espelta J.M., Bonal R., Munoz A. (2014) Seeding phenology influences wood mouse seed choices: The overlooked role of timing in the foraging decisions by seed-dispersing rodents. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 68: 1205-1213.EnlaceDoi: 10.1007/s00265-014-1731-x
Scatter-hoarding rodents influence the population dynamics of plants by acting as seed predators and dispersers. Therefore, rodent foraging preferences for certain seed traits (species, size, condition) have been extensively studied. However, to what extent these preferences are fixed or they track the temporal changes on seed characteristics due to phenological differences has been seldom explored. We studied the temporal variability in seed preferences by wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), according to phenological changes in seed characteristics of two co-occurring oaks (Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens). The phenology of acorn abundance and the acorn predation/dispersal patterns by rodents were monitored over an entire seeding season. Results revealed temporal changes in rodent preferences for acorns of the two oaks, matching their different seeding phenology (earlier in Q. pubescens and later in Q. ilex). On the other hand, whatever the species considered, rodents preferred larger and sound acorns along the entire season, although the dispersal of infested ones increased slightly during the peaks of acorn drop. The observed influence of seeding phenology on seed choices by rodents warns about inferring definite conclusions regarding their foraging behavior when arising from short-term experiments. Indeed, this study reveals that foraging preferences may be highly dynamic and context-dependent for some seed traits (e.g., species and condition), rather than fixed behavioral patterns. Plasticity in rodent foraging choices may allow them to successfully exploit different oaks with uncoupled seeding phenologies, while potentially favoring their coexistence. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
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