Barba, J., Lloret, F., Poyatos, R., Molowny-Horas, R., Yuste, J.C. (2018) Multi-temporal influence of vegetation on soil respiration in a droughtaffected forest. IForest. 11: 189-198.EnlaceDoi: 10.3832/ifor2448-011
García-Callejas D., Molowny-Horas R., Araújo M.B. (2018) The effect of multiple biotic interaction types on species persistence. Ecology. 99: 2327-2337.EnlaceDoi: 10.1002/ecy.2465
No species can persist in isolation from other species, but how biotic interactions affect species persistence is still a matter of inquiry. Is persistence more likely in communities with higher proportion of competing species, or in communities with more positive interactions? How do different components of community structure mediate this relationship? We address these questions using a novel simulation framework that generates realistic communities with varying numbers of species and different proportions of biotic interaction types within and across trophic levels. We show that when communities have fewer species, persistence is more likely if positive interactions—such as mutualism and commensalism—are prevalent. In species-rich communities, the disproportionate effect of positive interactions on persistence is diluted and different combinations of biotic interaction types can coexist without affecting persistence significantly. We present the first theoretical examination of how multiple-interaction networks with varying architectures relate to local species persistence, and provide insight about the underlying causes of stability in communities. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America
Molowny-Horas R., Borrego A., Riera P., Espelta J.M. (2018) Severe wildfire in a mediterranean forest. Equivalency Methods for Environmental Liability: Assessing Damage and Compensation Under the European Environmental Liability Directive. : 203-234.EnlaceDoi: 10.1007/978-90-481-9812-2_11
This case study illustrates the equivalency analysis for estimating ex post environmental damage and appropriate compensatory remediation following a severe wildfire caused by a power line in a forest protected under the European Union Habitats Directive (HD). The study addresses long-term environmental damage (e.g., over several decades) by a large-scale disturbance in a terrestrial ecosystem, and includes an analysis of uncertainty associated with the potential occurrence of natural future fire events in the area. Accounting for the probability of natural future forest fires directly affects both baseline and compensatory remediation options by reducing the habitat area compared to an assumption of no future forest fires. Only natural forest fires, i.e., 10% of all forest fires, have been included in the calculations of both the baseline and the compensatory remediation, since the operator may not be made liable for accidental or provoked forest fires. The impact of this hypothesis is tested by means of a sensitivity analysis. The case study illustrates: • Considerations in selecting a metric from various potential ones (hectares, trees, biomass, habitat quality) for terrestrial habitats included in the HD; • Application of a value equivalency approach (specifically, value-to-value); • Analysis of key variables (e.g., differences in metrics, single/multiple metrics, on-site/off-site implementation); and • Sensitivity of the results to changes in four key model parameters (i.e. area of future forest fires, tree mortality, percentage of natural forest fires and tree minimum diameter at breast height). © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2018.
Sgolastra, F., Blasioli, S., Renzi, T., Tosi, S., Medrzycki, P., Molowny-Horas, R., Porrini, C., Braschi, I. (2018) Lethal effects of Cr(III) alone and in combination with propiconazole and clothianidin in honey bees. Chemosphere. 191: 365-372.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.10.068
Andrés, P., Moore, J.C., Cotrufo, F., Denef, K., Haddix, M.L., Molowny-Horas, R., Riba, M., Wall, D.H. (2017) Grazing and edaphic properties mediate soil biotic response to altered precipitation patterns in a semiarid prairie. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 113: 263-274.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.06.022
Armenteras, D., Sebastian Barreto, J., Tabor, K., Molowny-Horas, R., Retana, J. (2017) Changing patterns of fire occurrence in proximity to forest edges, roads and rivers between NW Amazonian countries. Biogeosciences. 14: 2755-2765.EnlaceDoi: 10.5194/bg-14-2755-2017
García-Callejas, D., Molowny-Horas, R., Araújo, M.B. (2017) Multiple interactions networks: Towards more realistic descriptions of the web of life. Oikos. : 0-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1111/oik.04428
Margalef O., Sardans J., Fernández-Martínez M., Molowny-Horas R., Janssens I.A., Ciais P., Goll D., Richter A., Obersteiner M., Asensio D., Peñuelas J. (2017) Global patterns of phosphatase activity in natural soils. Scientific Reports. 7: 0-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1038/s41598-017-01418-8
Soil phosphatase levels strongly control the biotic pathways of phosphorus (P), an essential element for life, which is often limiting in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated the influence of climatic and soil traits on phosphatase activity in terrestrial systems using metadata analysis from published studies. This is the first analysis of global measurements of phosphatase in natural soils. Our results suggest that organic P (Porg), rather than available P, is the most important P fraction in predicting phosphatase activity. Structural equation modeling using soil total nitrogen (TN), mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, thermal amplitude and total soil carbon as most available predictor variables explained up to 50% of the spatial variance in phosphatase activity. In this analysis, Porg could not be tested and among the rest of available variables, TN was the most important factor explaining the observed spatial gradients in phosphatase activity. On the other hand, phosphatase activity was also found to be associated with climatic conditions and soil type across different biomes worldwide. The close association among different predictors like Porg, TN and precipitation suggest that P recycling is driven by a broad scale pattern of ecosystem productivity capacity. © 2017 The Author(s).
Molowny-Horas, R., Suarez, M.L., Lloret, F. (2017) Changes in the natural dynamics of Nothofagus dombeyi forests: Population modeling with increasing drought frequencies. Ecosphere. 8: 0-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1002/ecs2.1708
Andrés P., Moore J.C., Simpson R.T., Selby G., Cotrufo F., Denef K., Haddix M.L., Shaw E.A., de Tomasel C.M., Molowny-Horas R., Wall D.H. (2016) Soil food web stability in response to grazing in a semi-arid prairie: The importance of soil textural heterogeneity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 97: 131-143.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.02.014
Grazing of grasslands by large herbivores is a form of land use intensification that affects not only plant communities but also soil biota and the ecosystem services that it provides. While grassland ecosystem responses to grazing have been extensively studied, few studies have focused on the effects of aboveground herbivores on belowground diversity and functions. In this work, we quantified effects of grazing on the structure, function and dynamic stability of soil food webs. We sampled a long-term grazing manipulation in a semi-arid shortgrass steppe (USA Great Plains) at sites showing contrasting soil textures. Treatments included native steppe plots that have been moderately grazed since 1939 paired with plots totally protected from grazing since 1996. We sampled our plots for soil C and N, and for soil biota, separated microbes and micro- and mesofauna in trophic functional groups and defined trophic relationships. We used models to estimate carbon and nitrogen mineralization, energy flow throughout the food web, interaction strengths between trophic groups at steady-state and, eventually, asymptotic (near-equilibrium or local) stability (Moore and de Ruiter, 2012). Soil food web response to grazing depended on soil texture and organic matter content. In our food webs, most energy flowed through the fungal and bacterial detritus-based channels (sensu Moore and Hunt, 1988). There was a clear asymmetry between the amount of energy flowing through each of the two channels and, the higher this asymmetry, the higher was food web stability. Stability was affected by both grazing and soil properties (increased under grazing in high clay soils with high organic matter content but decreased in less organic loam sandy soils), and positively associated with soil organic matter content. Overall, we found that the carbon flow through the soil food web of the shortgrass steppe is responsive to grazing in ways that altered stability and that structural, functional, and dynamic attributes are sensitive parameters for evaluating soil response to land use under changing scenarios. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
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