Do asynchronies in extinction debt affect the structure of trophic networks? A case study of antagonistic butterfly larvae–plant networks

Guardiola M., Stefanescu C., Rod F., Pino J. (2018) Do asynchronies in extinction debt affect the structure of trophic networks? A case study of antagonistic butterfly larvae–plant networks. Oikos. 127: 803-813.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/oik.04536

Resumen:

Habitat loss and fragmentation affect species richness in fragmented habitats and can lead to immediate or time-delayed species extinctions. Asynchronies in extinction and extinction debt between interacting species may have severe effects on ecological networks. However, these effects remain largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of habitat patch and landscape changes on antagonistic butterfly larvae–plant trophic networks in Mediterranean grasslands in which previous studies had shown the existence of extinction debt in plants but not in butterflies. We sampled current species richness of habitat-specialist and generalist butterflies and vascular plants in 26 grasslands. We assessed the direct effects of historical and current patch and landscape characteristics on species richness and on butterfly larvae–plant trophic network metrics and robustness. Although positive species- and interactions–area relationships were found in all networks, structure and robustness was only affected by patch and landscape changes in networks involving the subset of butterfly specialists. Larger patches had more species (butterflies and host plants) and interactions but also more compartments, which decreased network connectance but increased network stability. Moreover, most likely due to the rescue effect, patch connectivity increased host-plant species (but not butterfly) richness and total links, and network robustness in specialist networks. On the other hand, patch area loss decreased robustness in specialist butterfly larvae–plant networks and made them more prone to collapse against host plant extinctions. Finally, in all butterfly larvae–plant networks we also detected a past patch and landscape effect on network asymmetry, which indicates that there were different extinction rates and extinction debts for butterflies and host plants. We conclude that asynchronies in extinction and extinction debt in butterfly–plant networks provoked by patch and landscape changes caused changes in species richness and network links in all networks, as well as changes in network structure and robustness in specialist networks. © 2017 The Authors

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The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

Hudson, L.N., Newbold, T., Contu, S., Hill, S.L.L., Lysenko, I., De Palma, A., Phillips, H.R.P., Alhusseini, T.I., Bedford, F.E., Bennett, D.J., Booth, H., Burton, V.J., Chng, C.W.T., Choimes, A., Correia, D.L.P., Day, J., Echeverría-Londoño, S., Emerson, S.R., Gao, D., Garon, M., Harrison, M.L.K., Ingram, D.J., Jung, M., Kemp, V., Kirkpatrick, L., Martin, C.D., Pan, Y., Pask-Hale, G.D., Pynegar, E.L., Robinson, A.N., Sanchez-Ortiz, K., Senior, R.A., Simmons, B.I., White, H.J., Zhang, H., Aben, J., Abrahamczyk, S., Adum, G.B., Aguilar-Barquero, V., Aizen, M.A., Albertos, B., Alcala, E.L., del Mar Alguacil, M., Alignier, A., Ancrenaz, M., Andersen, A.N., Arbeláez-Cortés, E., Armbrecht, I., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Aumann, T., Axmacher, J.C., Azhar, B., Azpiroz, A.B., Baeten, L., Bakayoko, A., Báldi, A., Banks, J.E., Baral, S.K., Barlow, J., Barratt, B.I.P., Barrico, L., Bartolommei, P., Barton, D.M., Basset, Y., Batáry, P., Bates, A.J., Baur, B., Bayne, E.M., Beja, P., Benedick, S., Berg, Å., Bernard, H., Berry, N.J., Bhatt, D., Bicknell, J.E., Bihn, J.H., Blake, R.J., Bobo, K.S., Bóçon, R., Boekhout, T., Böhning-Gaese, K., Bonham, K.J., Borges, P.A.V., Borges, S.H., Boutin, C., Bouyer, J., Bragagnolo, C., Brandt, J.S., Brearley, F.Q., Brito, I., Bros, V., Brunet, J., Buczkowski, G., Buddle, C.M., Bugter, R., Buscardo, E., Buse, J., Cabra-García, J., Cáceres, N.C., Cagle, N.L., Calviño-Cancela, M., Cameron, S.A., Cancello, E.M., Caparrós, R., Cardoso, P., Carpenter, D., Carrijo, T.F., Carvalho, A.L., Cassano, C.R., Castro, H., Castro-Luna, A.A., Rolando, C.B., Cerezo, A., Chapman, K.A., Chauvat, M., Christensen, M., Clarke, F.M., Cleary, D.F.R., Colombo, G., Connop, S.P., Craig, M.D., Cruz-López, L., Cunningham, S.A., D'Aniello, B., D'Cruze, N., da Silva, P.G., Dallimer, M., Danquah, E., Darvill, B., Dauber, J., Davis, A.L.V., Dawson, J., de Sassi, C., de Thoisy, B., Deheuvels, O., Dejean, A., Devineau, J.-L., Diekötter, T., Dolia, J.V., Domínguez, E., Dominguez-Haydar, Y., Dorn, S., Draper, I., Dreber, N., Dumont, B., Dures, S.G., Dynesius, M., Edenius, L., Eggleton, P., Eigenbrod, F., Elek, Z., Entling, M.H., Esler, K.J., de Lima, R.F., Faruk, A., Farwig, N., Fayle, T.M., Felicioli, A., Felton, A.M., Fensham, R.J., Fernandez, I.C., Ferreira, C.C., Ficetola, G.F., Fiera, C., Filgueiras, B.K.C., Fırıncıoğlu, H.K., Flaspohler, D., Floren, A., Fonte, S.J., Fournier, A., Fowler, R.E., Franzén, M., Fraser, L.H., Fredriksson, G.M., Freire, G.B., Frizzo, T.L.M., Fukuda, D., Furlani, D., Gaigher, R., Ganzhorn, J.U., García, K.P., Garcia-R, J.C., Garden, J.G., Garilleti, R., Ge, B.-M., Gendreau-Berthiaume, B., Gerard, P.J., Gheler-Costa, C., Gilbert, B., Giordani, P., Giordano, S., Golodets, C., Gomes, L.G.L., Gould, R.K., Goulson, D., Gove, A.D., Granjon, L., Grass, I., Gray, C.L., Grogan, J., Gu, W., Guardiola, M., Gunawardene, N.R., Gutierrez, A.G., Gutiérrez-Lamus, D.L., Haarmeyer, D.H., Hanley, M.E., Hanson, T., Hashim, N.R., Hassan, S.N., Hatfield, R.G., Hawes, J.E., Hayward, M.W., Hébert, C., Helden, A.J., Henden, J.-A., Henschel, P., Hernández, L., Herrera, J.P., Herrmann, F., Herzog, F., Higuera-Diaz, D., Hilje, B., Höfer, H., Hoffmann, A., Horgan, F.G., Hornung, E., Horváth, R., Hylander, K., Isaacs-Cubides, P., Ishida, H., Ishitani, M., Jacobs, C.T., Jaramillo, V.J., Jauker, B., Hernández, F.J., Johnson, M.F., Jolli, V., Jonsell, M., Juliani, S.N., Jung, T.S., Kapoor, V., Kappes, H., Kati, V., Katovai, E., Kellner, K., Kessler, M., Kirby, K.R., Kittle, A.M., Knight, M.E., Knop, E., Kohler, F., Koivula, M., Kolb, A., Kone, M., Kőrösi, Á., Krauss, J., Kumar, A., Kumar, R., Kurz, D.J., Kutt, A.S., Lachat, T., Lantschner, V., Lara, F., Lasky, J.R., Latta, S.C., Laurance, W.F., Lavelle, P., Le Féon, V., LeBuhn, G., Légaré, J.-P., Lehouck, V., Lencinas, M.V., Lentini, P.E., Letcher, S.G., Li, Q., Litchwark, S.A., Littlewood, N.A., Liu, Y., Lo-Man-Hung, N., López-Quintero, C.A., Louhaichi, M., Lövei, G.L., Lucas-Borja, M.E., Luja, V.H., Luskin, M.S., MacSwiney G, M.C., Maeto, K., Magura, T., Mallari, N.A., Malone, L.A., Malonza, P.K., Malumbres-Olarte, J., Mandujano, S., Måren, I.E., Marin-Spiotta, E., Marsh, C.J., Marshall, E.J.P., Martínez, E., Martínez Pastur, G., Moreno Mateos, D., Mayfield, M.M., Mazimpaka, V., McCarthy, J.L., McCarthy, K.P., McFrederick, Q.S., McNamara, S., Medina, N.G., Medina, R., Mena, J.L., Mico, E., Mikusinski, G., Milder, J.C., Miller, J.R., Miranda-Esquivel, D.R., Moir, M.L., Morales, C.L., Muchane, M.N., Muchane, M., Mudri-Stojnic, S., Munira, A.N., Muoñz-Alonso, A., Munyekenye, B.F., Naidoo, R., Naithani, A., Nakagawa, M., Nakamura, A., Nakashima, Y., Naoe, S., Nates-Parra, G., Navarrete Gutierrez, D.A., Navarro-Iriarte, L., Ndang'ang'a, P.K., Neuschulz, E.L., Ngai, J.T., Nicolas, V., Nilsson, S.G., Noreika, N., Norfolk, O., Noriega, J.A., Norton, D.A., Nöske, N.M., Nowakowski, A.J., Numa, C., O'Dea, N., O'Farrell, P.J., Oduro, W., Oertli, S., Ofori-Boateng, C., Oke, C.O., Oostra, V., Osgathorpe, L.M., Otavo, S.E., Page, N.V., Paritsis, J., Parra-H, A., Parry, L., Pe'er, G., Pearman, P.B., Pelegrin, N., Pélissier, R., Peres, C.A., Peri, P.L., Persson, A.S., Petanidou, T., Peters, M.K., Pethiyagoda, R.S., Phalan, B., Philips, T.K., Pillsbury, F.C., Pincheira-Ulbrich, J., Pineda, E., Pino, J., Pizarro-Araya, J., Plumptre, A.J., Poggio, S.L., Politi, N., Pons, P., Poveda, K., Power, E.F., Presley, S.J., Proença, V., Quaranta, M., Quintero, C., Rader, R., Ramesh, B.R., Ramirez-Pinilla, M.P., Ranganathan, J., Rasmussen, C., Redpath-Downing, N.A., Reid, J.L., Reis, Y.T., Rey Benayas, J.M., Rey-Velasco, J.C., Reynolds, C., Ribeiro, D.B., Richards, M.H., Richardson, B.A., Richardson, M.J., Ríos, R.M., Robinson, R., Robles, C.A., Römbke, J., Romero-Duque, L.P., Rös, M., Rosselli, L., Rossiter, S.J., Roth, D.S., Roulston, T.H., Rousseau, L., Rubio, A.V., Ruel, J.-C., Sadler, J.P., Sáfián, S., Saldaña-Vázquez, R.A., Sam, K., Samnegård, U., Santana, J., Santos, X., Savage, J., Schellhorn, N.A., Schilthuizen, M., Schmiedel, U., Schmitt, C.B., Schon, N.L., Schüepp, C., Schumann, K., Schweiger, O., Scott, D.M., Scott, K.A., Sedlock, J.L., Seefeldt, S.S., Shahabuddin, G., Shannon, G., Sheil, D., Sheldon, F.H., Shochat, E., Siebert, S.J., Silva, F.A.B., Simonetti, J.A., Slade, E.M., Smith, J., Smith-Pardo, A.H., Sodhi, N.S., Somarriba, E.J., Sosa, R.A., Soto Quiroga, G., St-Laurent, M.-H., Starzomski, B.M., Stefanescu, C., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Stouffer, P.C., Stout, J.C., Strauch, A.M., Struebig, M.J., Su, Z., Suarez-Rubio, M., Sugiura, S., Summerville, K.S., Sung, Y.-H., Sutrisno, H., Svenning, J.-C., Teder, T., Threlfall, C.G., Tiitsaar, A., Todd, J.H., Tonietto, R.K., Torre, I., Tóthmérész, B., Tscharntke, T., Turner, E.C., Tylianakis, J.M., Uehara-Prado, M., Urbina-Cardona, N., Vallan, D., Vanbergen, A.J., Vasconcelos, H.L., Vassilev, K., Verboven, H.A.F., Verdasca, M.J., Verdú, J.R., Vergara, C.H., Vergara, P.M., Verhulst, J., Virgilio, M., Vu, L.V., Waite, E.M., Walker, T.R., Wang, H.-F., Wang, Y., Watling, J.I., Weller, B., Wells, K., Westphal, C., Wiafe, E.D., Williams, C.D., Willig, M.R., Woinarski, J.C.Z., Wolf, J.H.D., Wolters, V., Woodcock, B.A., Wu, J., Wunderle, J.M., Yamaura, Y., Yoshikura, S., Yu, D.W., Zaitsev, A.S., Zeidler, J., Zou, F., Collen, B., Ewers, R.M., Mace, G.M., Purves, D.W., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Purvis, A. (2017) The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project. Ecology and Evolution. 7: 145-188.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1002/ece3.2579

Resumen:

A new paradigm of quantifying ecosystem stress through chemical signatures

Kravitz, B., Guenther, A.B., Gu, L., Karl, T., Kaser, L., Pallardy, S.G., Peñuelas, J., Potosnak, M.J., Seco, R. (2016) A new paradigm of quantifying ecosystem stress through chemical signatures. Ecosphere. 7: 0-0.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1559

Resumen:

Spatial patterns of land use changes across a mediterranean metropolitan landscape: Implications for biodiversity management

Basnou C., Alvarez E., Bagaria G., Guardiola M., Isern R., Vicente P., Pino J. (2013) Spatial patterns of land use changes across a mediterranean metropolitan landscape: Implications for biodiversity management. Environmental Management. 52: 971-980.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1007/s00267-013-0150-5

Resumen:

Land use and land cover change (LUCC) is an acknowledged cause of the current biodiversity crisis, but the link between LUCC and biodiversity conservation remains largely unknown at the regional scale, especially due to the traditional lack of consistent biodiversity data. We provide a methodological approach for assessing this link through defining a set of major pressures on biodiversity from LUCC and evaluating their extent, distribution, and association with a set of physical factors. The study was performed in the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona (MRB, NE of Spain) between 1956 and 2000. We generated a LUCC map for the time period, which was reclassified into a set of pressures on biodiversity (forestation, deforestation, crop abandonment, and urbanization). We then explored the association of these pressures with a set of physical factors using redundancy analysis (RDA). Pressures encompassed 38.8 % of the MRB area. Urbanization and forestation were the dominating pressures, followed by crop abandonment and deforestation. RDA showed a significant distribution gradient of these pressures in relation to the studied physical factors: while forestation and deforestation are concentrated in remote mountain areas, urbanization mainly occurs in lowlands and especially on the coast, and close to previous urban centers and roads. Unchanged areas are concentrated in rainy and relatively remote mountain areas. Results also showed a dramatic loss of open habitats and of the traditional land use gradient, both featuring Mediterranean landscapes and extremely important for their biodiversity conservation. Implications of these results for biodiversity management are finally discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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Patch history and spatial scale modulate local plant extinction and extinction debt in habitat patches

Guardiola M., Pino J., Roda F. (2013) Patch history and spatial scale modulate local plant extinction and extinction debt in habitat patches. Diversity and Distributions. 19: 825-833.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/ddi.12045

Resumen:

Aim: Many species exhibit a time-lag between habitat loss and its extinction, resulting in extinction debt. Although extinction debt is considered a widespread phenomenon, differences in methodological approaches can affect its detection. We aim to contribute to this methodological debate by exploring whether extinction debt is either a phenomenon common to all patches or idiosyncratic to the patch and landscape attributes of a given patch. We also aim to determine whether the scale dependency of species richness might help to explain extinction debt. Location: Southern Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methods: We studied the effects of habitat loss on plant species richness (total, specialists and generalists) in stable (habitat loss

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Species traits weakly involved in plant responses to landscape properties in Mediterranean grasslands

Bagaria G., Pino J., Rodà F., Guardiola M. (2012) Species traits weakly involved in plant responses to landscape properties in Mediterranean grasslands. Journal of Vegetation Science. 23: 432-442.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2011.01363.x

Resumen:

Questions: What is the role of landscape structure and dynamics, compared with climatic and geographic factors, in determining species frequencies of grassland plant specialists under habitat loss? Do species traits mediate the relationship between plant community composition and environmental variables? Location: The Mediterranean mountain grasslands of southern Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), over an area of 100 × 20 km. Methods: Using redundancy analysis (RDA), we explored the association between frequency of broad plant specialists and both present and past habitat patterns in the landscape (i.e. habitat amount and reduction over the period 1956-2003), after accounting for the effect of geographical location and climate in 29 grassland patches. Then, we constructed a database of biological and ecological plant traits potentially related to population persistence, in order to assess the role of these traits in explaining the found association between species composition and environmental variables. We used a single, three-table ordination analysis (RLQ) of the species frequencies, environmental variables and species traits to relate species traits to environmental variables, after allowing for phylogenetic dependence of traits. Results: The main environmental gradient explaining species frequencies was climatic and geographic. Habitat amount in the current landscape significantly affected species frequencies, while habitat amount in the past landscape did not. A weak but significant association of species traits with environmental variables was detected. Taking into account the phylogenetic signal in plant traits did not change the results. Conclusions: Plant species in Mediterranean grasslands seem to respond quickly to landscape change, since no effect of past landscape structure was observed on current species frequencies. Moreover, plant traits did not play a major role in mediating species response to environmental variation in these grasslands. Our findings differ from those obtained in northern and central European grasslands, probably due to differences in methodology but also to the smaller contrast in environmental conditions between grasslands and the adjacent forests and scrub in Mediterranean landscapes. © 2011 International Association for Vegetation Science.

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Les espècies exòtiques de Catalunya. Resum del projecte EXOCAT 2012.

Andreu J, Pino J, Basnou C, Guardiola M, Ordóñez JL (2012) Les espècies exòtiques de Catalunya. Resum del projecte EXOCAT 2012.  http://www20.gencat.cat/docs/DAR/MN_Medi_natural/MN10_Fauna_salvatge_autoctona/Fauna_invasora_medi_natural/EXOCAT_2012_def.pdf

El deute d’extinció: una amenaça latent en una Catalunya canviant?.

Pino J, Guardiola M, Rodà F, Stefanescu C (2011) El deute d’extinció: una amenaça latent en una Catalunya canviant?. L'Atzavara 20: 17-27.

Habitat fragmentation causes immediate and time-delayed biodiversity loss at different trophic levels

Krauss J., Bommarco R., Guardiola M., Heikkinen R.K., Helm A., Kuussaari M., Lindborg R., Öckinger E., Pärtel M., Pino J., Pöyry J., Raatikainen K.M., Sang A., Stefanescu C., Teder T., Zobel M., Steffan-Dewenter I. (2010) Habitat fragmentation causes immediate and time-delayed biodiversity loss at different trophic levels. Ecology Letters. 13: 597-605.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01457.x

Resumen:

Intensification or abandonment of agricultural land use has led to a severe decline of semi-natural habitats across Europe. This can cause immediate loss of species but also time-delayed extinctions, known as the extinction debt. In a pan-European study of 147 fragmented grassland remnants, we found differences in the extinction debt of species from different trophic levels. Present-day species richness of long-lived vascular plant specialists was better explained by past than current landscape patterns, indicating an extinction debt. In contrast, short-lived butterfly specialists showed no evidence for an extinction debt at a time scale of c. 40 years. Our results indicate that management strategies maintaining the status quo of fragmented habitats are insufficient, as time-delayed extinctions and associated co-extinctions will lead to further biodiversity loss in the future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

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