Sayol F., Downing P.A., Iwaniuk A.N., Maspons J., Sol D. (2018) Predictable evolution towards larger brains in birds colonizing oceanic islands. Nature Communications. 9: 0-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05280-8
Theory and evidence suggest that some selective pressures are more common on islands than in adjacent mainland habitats, leading evolution to follow predictable trends. The existence of predictable evolutionary trends has nonetheless been difficult to demonstrate, mainly because of the challenge of separating in situ evolution from sorting processes derived from colonization events. Here we use brain size measurements of >1900 avian species to reveal the existence of one such trend: increased brain size in island dwellers. Based on sister-taxa comparisons and phylogenetic ancestral trait estimations, we show that species living on islands have relatively larger brains than their mainland relatives and that these differences mainly reflect in situ evolution rather than varying colonization success. Our findings reinforce the view that in some instances evolution may be predictable, and yield insight into why some animals evolve larger brains despite substantial energetic and developmental costs. © 2018, The Author(s).
Sol D., Maspons J., Gonzalez-Voyer A., Morales-Castilla I., Garamszegi L.Z., Møller A.P. (2018) Risk-taking behavior, urbanization and the pace of life in birds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 72: 0-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1007/s00265-018-2463-0
Abstract: Despite growing appreciation of the importance of considering a pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) perspective to understand how animals interact with their environment, studies relating behavior to life history under altered environmental conditions are still rare. By means of a comparative analysis of flight initiation distances (i.e., the distance at which an animal takes flight when a human being is approaching) across > 300 bird species distributed worldwide, we document here the existence of a POLS predicted by theory where slow-lived species tend to be more risk-averse than fast-lived species. This syndrome largely emerges from the influence of body mass, and is highly dependent on the environmental context. Accordingly, the POLS structure vanishes in urbanized environments due to slow-lived species adjusting their flight distances based on the perception of risk. While it is unclear whether changes in POLS reflect plastic and/or evolutionary adjustments, our findings highlight the need to integrate behavior into life history theory to fully understand how animals tolerate human-induced environmental changes. Significance statement: Animals can often respond to changing environmental conditions by adjusting their behavior. However, the degree to which different species can modify their behavior depends on their life history strategy and on the environmental context. Species-specific perception of risk is a conspicuous example of adjustable behavior tightly associated with life history strategy. While there is a general tendency of higher risk aversion in rural than city-dwelling birds, it is dependent on the species’ life history strategy. Slow-lived species are more prone to adjust their flight initiation distances based on the perception of risk, allowing humans to approach closer in urban than rural environments. Behavior must therefore be taken into account together with life history to reliably assess species’ vulnerability at the face of ongoing environmental change. © 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
Sayol, F., Maspons, J., Lapiedra, O., Iwaniuk, A.N., Székely, T., Sol, D. (2016) Environmental variation and the evolution of large brains in birds. Nature Communications. 7: 0-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1038/ncomms13971
Sol D., Maspons J. (2015) Integrating behavior into life-history theory: A comment on Wong and Candolin. Behavioral Ecology. 26: 677-678.EnlaceDoi: 10.1093/beheco/arv025
[No abstract available]
Audsley E., Trnka M., Sabate S., Maspons J., Sanchez A., Sandars D., Balek J., Pearn K. (2014) Interactively modelling land profitability to estimate European agricultural and forest land use under future scenarios of climate, socio-economics and adaptation. Climatic Change. : 0-0.EnlaceDoi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1164-6
Studies of climate change impacts on agricultural land use generally consider sets of climates combined with fixed socio-economic scenarios, making it impossible to compare the impact of specific factors within these scenario sets. Analysis of the impact of specific scenario factors is extremely difficult due to prohibitively long run-times of the complex models. This study produces and combines metamodels of crop and forest yields and farm profit, derived from previously developed very complex models, to enable prediction of European land use under any set of climate and socio-economic data. Land use is predicted based on the profitability of the alternatives on every soil within every 10' grid across the EU. A clustering procedure reduces 23,871 grids with 20+ soils per grid to 6,714 clusters of common soil and climate. Combined these reduce runtime 100 thousand-fold. Profit thresholds define land as intensive agriculture (arable or grassland), extensive agriculture or managed forest, or finally unmanaged forest or abandoned land. The demand for food as a function of population, imports, food preferences and bioenergy, is a production constraint, as is irrigation water available. An iteration adjusts prices to meet these constraints. A range of measures are derived at 10' grid-level such as diversity as well as overall EU production. There are many ways to utilise this ability to do rapid What-If analysis of both impact and adaptations. The paper illustrates using two of the 5 different GCMs (CSMK3, HADGEM with contrasting precipitation and temperature) and two of the 4 different socio-economic scenarios ("We are the world", "Should I stay or should I go" which have contrasting demands for land), exploring these using two of the 13 scenario parameters (crop breeding for yield and population) . In the first scenario, population can be increased by a large amount showing that food security is far from vulnerable. In the second scenario increasing crop yield shows that it improves the food security problem. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Sol D., Gonzalez-Lagos C., Moreira D., Maspons J., Lapiedra O. (2014) Urbanisation tolerance and the loss of avian diversity. Ecology Letters. 17: 942-950.EnlaceDoi: 10.1111/ele.12297
Urbanisation is considered an important driver of current biodiversity loss, but the underlying causes are not fully understood. It is generally assumed that this loss reflects the fact that most organisms do not tolerate well the environmental alterations associated with urbanisation. Nevertheless, current evidence is inconclusive and the alternative that the biodiversity loss is the result of random mechanisms has never been evaluated. Analysing changes in abundance between urbanised environments and their non-urbanised surroundings of > 800 avian species from five continents, we show here that although random processes account for part of the species loss associated with urbanisation, much of the loss is associated with a lack of appropriate adaptations of most species for exploiting resources and avoiding risks of the urban environments. These findings have important conservation implications because the extinction of species with particular features should have higher impact on biodiversity and ecosystem function than a random loss. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Sol D, Maspons J, Vall-llosera M, Bartomeus I, García-Peña GE, Piñol J, Freckleton RP (2012) Unraveling the life history of successful invaders. Oral presentation, 7th Neobiota International conference, Pontevedra (Spain), 2012.
Maspons J, Sol D (2012) The effect of bed-hedging on introduced populations. Poster, 7th Neobiota International conference, Pontevedra (Spain), 2012.
Sol D., Maspons J., Vall-llosera M., Bartomeus I., García-Peña G.E., Piñol J., Freckleton R.P. (2012) Unraveling the life history of successful invaders. Science. 337: 580-583.EnlaceDoi: 10.1126/science.1221523
Despite considerable current interest in biological invasions, the common life-history characteristics of successful invaders remain elusive. The widely held hypothesis that successful invaders have high reproductive rates has received little empirical support; however, alternative possibilities are seldom considered. Combining a global comparative analysis of avian introductions (>2700 events) with demographic models and phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that although rapid population growth may be advantageous during invasions under certain circumstances, more generally successful invaders are characterized by life-history strategies in which they give priority to future rather than current reproduction. High future breeding expectations reduce the costs of reproductive failure under uncertain conditions and increase opportunities to explore the environment and respond to novel ecological pressures.
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