Aguillaume L., Rodrigo A., Avila A. (2016) Long-term effects of changing atmospheric pollution on throughfall, bulk deposition and streamwaters in a Mediterranean forest. Science of the Total Environment. 544: 919-928.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.017
The abatement programs implanted in Europe to reduce SO2, NO2 and NH3 emissions are here evaluated by analyzing the relationships between emissions in Spain and neighboring countries and atmospheric deposition in a Mediterranean forest in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain) for the last 3decades. A canopy budget model was applied to throughfall data measured during a period of high emissions (1995-1996) and a period of lower emissions (2011-2013) to estimate the changes in dry deposition over this time span.Emissions of SO2 in Spain strongly decreased (77%) and that was reflected in reductions for nssSO4 2- in precipitation (65% for concentrations and 62% for SO4 2-S deposition). A lower decline was found for dry deposition (29%).Spanish NO2 emissions increased from 1980 to 1991, remained constant until 2005, and decreased thereafter, a pattern that was paralleled by NO3 - concentrations in bulk precipitation at Montseny. This pattern seems to be related to a higher share of renewable energies in electricity generation in Spain in recent years. However, dry deposition increased markedly between 1995 and 2012, from 1.3 to 6.7kgha-1year- 1. Differences in meteorology between periods may have had a role, since the recent period was drier thus probably favoring dry deposition.Spanish NH3 emissions increased by 13% between 1980 and 2012 in Spain but NH4 + concentrations in precipitation and NH4 +-N deposition showed a decreasing trend (15% reduction) at Montseny, probably linked to the reduction ammonium sulfate and nitrate aerosols to be scavenged by rainfall. NH4 +-N dry deposition was similar between the compared periods.The N load at Montseny (15-17kgha-1year-1) was within the critical load range proposed for Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests (15-17.5kgha-1year-1). The onset of N saturation is suggested by the observed increasing N export in streamwaters. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Avila A., Rodrigo A. (2004) Trace metal fluxes in bulk deposition, throughfall and stemflow at two evergreen oak stands in NE Spain subject to different exposure to the industrial environment. Atmospheric Environment. 38: 171-180.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.067
We compare here the bulk deposition, throughfall and stemflow fluxes of dissolved trace metals in two holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) forests in the Montseny Mountains (NE Spain) with the aim of: (1) applying different methods to distinguish between dry deposition and canopy leaching and (2) to add to the almost non-existing deposition measurements for dissolved Cu, Pb, Mn, V, Zn, Ni and Cd in two Spanish forests differentially exposed to the urban and industrial environment. No significant differences in mean bulk deposition concentrations or fluxes were found between sites, indicating little differential effect of the urban/industrial environment on bulk precipitation chemistry. At both sites, throughfall and stemflow fluxes increased relative to bulk deposition for all elements, except for Zn and Cd. The relative contribution of leaching and dry deposition was evaluated through: (1) the seasonal variability of throughfall, (2) regressions of element fluxes on water flux in net throughfall, (3) washing branches and metacrylate plates, and (4) the sequential washing of branches. Results indicated that leaching was the main enrichment process for Mn. For Ni, except the sequential washings, all other evidences also pointed to leaching. For Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and V there was ample evidence for dry deposition. The fact that Zn and Cd had negative net throughfall fluxes indicated that canopy uptake was greater than deposition (wet plus dry). Net throughfall fluxes pointed to higher dry deposition onto the canopies in the more exposed site, but the occurrence of uptake impeached quantification. Therefore, dry deposition was estimated from the recovered quantities from experimental washings of foliage, taken to represent the impaction of small particles onto the canopy. The foliage-wash fluxes were, for Zn, Cu and Pb, respectively, 407, 25 and 16gha-1yr-1 at the sheltered site and 423, 38 and 26gha-1yr-1 at the exposed site. Deposition in bulk precipitation (wet deposition+an unknown fraction of dry deposition mostly accounted by coarse particles settling gravitationally) was lower: 222, 6.3 and 6.5gha-1yr-1 for Zn, Cu and Pb, respectively, averaged for the two sites. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodrigo A, Avila A, Rodà F (2003) The chemistry of precipitation, throughfall and stemflow in two holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) forests under a contrasted pollution environment in NE Spain. The Science of the Total Environment 305:195-205.
Rodrigo A, Avila A (2002) Dry deposition to the forest canopy and surrogate surfaces in two Mediterranean holm oak forests in Montseny (NE Spain). Water, Air and Soil Pollution 136:269-288.
Avila A, Rodrigo A, Rodà F (2002) Nitrogen circulation in a Mediterranean holm oak forest, La Castanya, Montseny, northeastern Spain. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 6:551-557.
Rodà F., Avila A., Rodrigo A. (2002) Nitrogen deposition in Mediterranean forests. Environmental Pollution. 118: 205-213.EnlaceDoi: 10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00313-X
Atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen was studied at two forested sites in the Montseny mountains (northeast Spain), peripheral to the Barcelona conurbation, and at a nearby lowland town, using bulk deposition, wet-only deposition, throughfall, and dry deposition inferred from branch-washes and surrogate surfaces (metacrylate plates). Bulk deposition inputs of ammonium and nitrate did not show significant temporal trends over a 16-year period. Bulk inputs of inorganic N were moderate, ranging from 6 to 10 kg N ha-1 year-1 depending on the time period considered and the degree of site exposure to polluted air masses from the Barcelona conurbation. Large dry-sedimented particles played a minor role, since wet-only inputs were virtually identical to bulk inputs. On the contrary, branch- and plate-washes indicated substantial dry inputs of N gases and small particles. Total atmospheric deposition was estimated at 15-22 kg N ha-1 year-1, most of it being retained within the studied broadleaved evergreen forests. Ecosystem N availability is thus likely to be increasing in these forests. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodrigo A, Avila A (2001) Influence of sampling size in the estimation of mean throughfall in two Mediterranean holm oak forests. Journal of Hydrology 243:216-227.
Bellot J, Avila A, Rodrigo A (1999) Throughfall and stemflow. In Rodà F, Retana J, Gracia C, Bellot J (eds) Ecology of Mediterranean evergreen oak forests. Springer, Berlin, pp. 209-222.
Rodrigo A, Avila A, Gómez-Bolea A (1999) Trace metal contents in Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach. Compared to bulk deposition, throughfall and leaf-wash fluxes in two holm oak forests in Montseny (NE Spain). Atmospheric Environment 33:359-367.
Rodrigo A, Avila A, Gómez Bolea A (1999) Parmelia caperata (L.) com a bioindicador de la deposició atmosfèrica de diversos metalls pesants en dos alzinars del Montseny. In III i IV Trobada d'Estudiosos del Montseny. Diputació de Barcelona, Barcelona, pp. 283-288.
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