Early stage litter decomposition across biomes

(2018) Early stage litter decomposition across biomes. . : -.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.012

Resumen:

Is there a substitution of Pinaceae by Fagaceae in temperate forests at the global scale?

Alfaro Reyna T., Retana J., Martínez-Vilalta J. (2018) Is there a substitution of Pinaceae by Fagaceae in temperate forests at the global scale?. Global and Planetary Change. 166: 41-47.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.04.001

Resumen:

Reports on forest decline, changes in species composition and the distribution of forests in response to changes in climate and land use are increasing worldwide. Temperate forests are largely dominated by two tree families: Pinaceae and Fagaceae. These two families have distinct functional properties and different responses to environmental factors. Several local and regional assessments, particularly in Europe, have found that species of Fagaceae are invading areas previously dominated by Pinaceae. The main aim of this synthesis study is to analyze the relative dynamics of Pinaceae and Fagaceae species in temperate forests around the world, with the following specific objectives: (1) establish if there is a consistent directional substitution of Pinaceae by Fagaceae worldwide; and (2) determine whether these directional changes are associated with specific climatic conditions or certain geographic regions, reflecting differences in historical forest management and land use. A bibliographic review was performed and 51 papers were found that met the search criteria, including a total of 121 case studies in which the relative dynamics of Pinaceae and Fagaceae were evaluated. Our results show that the relative abundance of Fagaceae increased in 71% of cases (P → F dynamics), whereas Pinaceae relative abundance increased in 17% of cases (F → P) and 12% of cases did not show clear changes. Increases of Fagaceae relative to Pinaceae were less clear in areas where vegetation dynamics were driven by natural disturbances. Our results indicate a widespread increase in dominance of Fagaceae species at the expense of Pinaceae across northern temperate forests, with the exception of Eastern North America. The potential implications for ecosystem function and forest resilience under ongoing climate change are large and clearly deserve further study. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

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Bird community response in mountain pine forests of the Pyrenees managed under a shelterwood system

Ameztegui, A., Gil-Tena, A., Faus, J., Piqué, M., Brotons, L., Camprodon, J. (2018) Bird community response in mountain pine forests of the Pyrenees managed under a shelterwood system. Forest Ecology and Management. 407: 95-105.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2017.09.002

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Isotopic methods for non-destructive assessment of carbon dynamics in shrublands under long-term climate change manipulation

Andresen L.C., Domínguez M.T., Reinsch S., Smith A.R., Schmidt I.K., Ambus P., Beier C., Boeckx P., Bol R., de Dato G., Emmett B.A., Estiarte M., Garnett M.H., Kröel-Dulay G., Mason S.L., Nielsen C.S., Peñuelas J., Tietema A. (2018) Isotopic methods for non-destructive assessment of carbon dynamics in shrublands under long-term climate change manipulation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 9: 866-880.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12963

Resumen:

Long-term climate change experiments are extremely valuable for studying ecosystem responses to environmental change. Examination of the vegetation and the soil should be non-destructive to guarantee long-term research. In this paper, we review field methods using isotope techniques for assessing carbon dynamics in the plant–soil–air continuum, based on recent field experience and examples from a European climate change manipulation network. Eight European semi-natural shrubland ecosystems were exposed to warming and drought manipulations. One field site was additionally exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2. We discuss the isotope methods that were used across the network to evaluate carbon fluxes and ecosystem responses, including: (1) analysis of the naturally rare isotopes of carbon (13C and 14C) and nitrogen (15N); (2) use of in situ pulse labelling with 13CO2, soil injections of 13C- and 15N-enriched substrates, or continuous labelling by free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and (3) manipulation of isotopic composition of soil substrates (14C) in laboratory-based studies. The natural 14C signature of soil respiration gave insight into a possible long-term shift in the partitioning between the decomposition of young and old soil carbon sources. Contrastingly, the stable isotopes 13C and 15N were used for shorter-term processes, as the residence time in a certain compartment of the stable isotope label signal is limited. The use of labelled carbon-compounds to study carbon mineralisation by soil micro-organisms enabled to determine the long-term effect of climate change on microbial carbon uptake kinetics and turnover. Based on the experience with the experimental work, we provide recommendations for the application of the reviewed methods to study carbon fluxes in the plant–soil–air continuum in climate change experiments. 13C-labelling techniques exert minimal physical disturbances, however, the dilution of the applied isotopic signal can be challenging. In addition, the contamination of the field site with excess 13C or 14C can be a problem for subsequent natural abundance (14C and 13C) or label studies. The use of slight changes in carbon and nitrogen natural abundance does not present problems related to potential dilution or contamination risks, but the usefulness depends on the fractionation rate of the studied processes. © 2018 The Authors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution © 2018 British Ecological Society

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Forest diversity plays a key role in determining the stand carbon stocks of Mexican forests

Arasa-Gisbert, R., Vayreda, J., Román-Cuesta, R.M., Villela, S.A., Mayorga, R., Retana, J. (2018) Forest diversity plays a key role in determining the stand carbon stocks of Mexican forests. Forest Ecology and Management. 415-416: 160-171.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.02.023

Resumen:

Role of seed size, phenology, oogenesis and host distribution in the specificity and genetic structure of seed weevils (Curculio spp.) in mixed forests

Arias-Leclaire H., Bonal R., GarcÍa-LÓpez D., Espelta J.M. (2018) Role of seed size, phenology, oogenesis and host distribution in the specificity and genetic structure of seed weevils (Curculio spp.) in mixed forests. Integrative Zoology. 13: 267-279.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/1749-4877.12293

Resumen:

Synchrony between seed growth and oogenesis is suggested to largely shape trophic breadth of seed-feeding insects and ultimately to contribute to their co-existence by means of resource partitioning or in the time when infestation occurs. Here we investigated: (i) the role of seed phenology and sexual maturation of females in the host specificity of seed-feeding weevils (Curculio spp.) predating in hazel and oak mixed forests; and (ii) the consequences that trophic breadth and host distribution have in the genetic structure of the weevil populations. DNA analyses were used to establish unequivocally host specificity and to determine the population genetic structure. We identified 4 species with different specificity, namely Curculio nucum females matured earlier and infested a unique host (hazelnuts, Corylus avellana) while 3 species (Curculio venosus, Curculio glandium and Curculio elephas) predated upon the acorns of the 2 oaks (Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens). The high specificity of C. nucum coupled with a more discontinuous distribution of hazel trees resulted in a significant genetic structure among sites. In addition, the presence of an excess of local rare haplotypes indicated that C. nucum populations went through genetic expansion after recent bottlenecks. Conversely, these effects were not observed in the more generalist Curculio glandium predating upon oaks. Ultimately, co-existence of weevil species in this multi-host-parasite system is influenced by both resource and time partitioning. To what extent the restriction in gene flow among C. nucum populations may have negative consequences for their persistence in a time of increasing disturbances (e.g. drought in Mediterranean areas) deserves further research. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd

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Increased anthropogenic disturbance and aridity reduce phylogenetic and functional diversity of ant communities in Caatinga dry forest

Arnan X., Arcoverde G.B., Pie M.R., Ribeiro-Neto J.D., Leal I.R. (2018) Increased anthropogenic disturbance and aridity reduce phylogenetic and functional diversity of ant communities in Caatinga dry forest. Science of the Total Environment. 631-632: 429-438.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.037

Resumen:

Anthropogenic disturbance and climate change are major threats to biodiversity. The Brazilian Caatinga is the world's largest and most diverse type of seasonally dry tropical forest. It is also one of the most threatened, but remains poorly studied. Here, we analyzed the individual and combined effects of anthropogenic disturbance (three types: livestock grazing, wood extraction, and miscellaneous use of forest resources) and increasing aridity on taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional ant diversity in the Caatinga. We found no aridity and disturbance effects on taxonomic diversity. In spite of this, functional diversity, and to a lesser extent phylogenetic diversity, decreased with increased levels of disturbance and aridity. These effects depended on disturbance type: livestock grazing and miscellaneous resource use, but not wood extraction, deterministically filtered both components of diversity. Interestingly, disturbance and aridity interacted to shape biodiversity responses. While aridity sometimes intensified the negative effects of disturbance, the greatest declines in biodiversity were in the wettest areas. Our results imply that anthropogenic disturbance and aridity interact in complex ways to endanger biodiversity in seasonally dry tropical forests. Given global climate change, neotropical semi-arid areas are habitats of concern, and our findings suggest Caatinga conservation policies must prioritize protection of the wettest areas, where biodiversity loss stands to be the greatest. Given the major ecological relevance of ants, declines in both ant phylogenetic and functional diversity might have downstream effects on ecosystem processes, insect populations, and plant populations. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

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Xylem hydraulic safety and construction costs determine tropical tree growth

B. Eller, C., de V. Barros, F., R.L. Bittencourt, P., Rowland, L., Mencuccini, M., S. Oliveira, R. (2018) Xylem hydraulic safety and construction costs determine tropical tree growth. Plant Cell and Environment. 41: 548-562.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1111/pce.13106

Resumen:

Multi-temporal influence of vegetation on soil respiration in a droughtaffected forest

Barba, J., Lloret, F., Poyatos, R., Molowny-Horas, R., Yuste, J.C. (2018) Multi-temporal influence of vegetation on soil respiration in a droughtaffected forest. IForest. 11: 189-198.
Enlace
Doi: 10.3832/ifor2448-011

Resumen:

Citizen Science: A Gateway for Innovation in Disease-Carrying Mosquito Management?

Bartumeus F., Oltra A., Palmer J.R.B. (2018) Citizen Science: A Gateway for Innovation in Disease-Carrying Mosquito Management?. Trends in Parasitology. : 0-0.
Enlace
Doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2018.04.010

Resumen:

Traditional methods for tracking disease-carrying mosquitoes are hitting budget constraints as the scales over which they must be implemented grow exponentially. Citizen science offers a novel solution to this problem but requires new models of innovation in the public health sector. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

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