Fitxa AIGUA I CANVI GLOBAL (català)

(2018) Fitxa AIGUA I CANVI GLOBAL (català). . : -.

Upscaling urban recycled water schemes: An analysis of the presence of required governance conditions in the city of Sabadell (Spain)

Alberich J.P., Mukhtarov F., Dieperink C., Driessen P., Broekman A. (2018) Upscaling urban recycled water schemes: An analysis of the presence of required governance conditions in the city of Sabadell (Spain). Water (Switzerland). 11: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.3390/w11010011

Resum:

Cleaning wastewater and using it again for secondary purposes is a measure to address water scarcity in urban areas. However, upscaling of recycled water schemes is challenging, and little is known about the governance conditions which are required for this. This paper addresses this knowledge gap. Based on a review of governance literature we suggest that five governance conditions are necessary for a successful upscaling of recycled water schemes: (1) policy leadership, (2) policy coordination, (3) availability of financial resources, (4) awareness of a problem, and (5) the presence of a public forum. We applied these concepts in a case study on the upscaling of a recycled water scheme in Sabadell, Spain. We reviewed policy documents, conducted a set of 21 semi-structured interviews, and attended two policy meetings about the subject. Our results suggest that Sabadell meets the required conditions for upscaling reused water to a certain extent. However, a public forum is not well-developed. We discuss the implications of this and conclude with some suggestions for future research and some lessons for other cities that plan to upscale their recycled water schemes. © 2018 by the authors.

Llegeix més

Is there a substitution of Pinaceae by Fagaceae in temperate forests at the global scale?

Alfaro Reyna T., Retana J., Martínez-Vilalta J. (2018) Is there a substitution of Pinaceae by Fagaceae in temperate forests at the global scale?. Global and Planetary Change. 166: 41-47.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.04.001

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Reports on forest decline, changes in species composition and the distribution of forests in response to changes in climate and land use are increasing worldwide. Temperate forests are largely dominated by two tree families: Pinaceae and Fagaceae. These two families have distinct functional properties and different responses to environmental factors. Several local and regional assessments, particularly in Europe, have found that species of Fagaceae are invading areas previously dominated by Pinaceae. The main aim of this synthesis study is to analyze the relative dynamics of Pinaceae and Fagaceae species in temperate forests around the world, with the following specific objectives: (1) establish if there is a consistent directional substitution of Pinaceae by Fagaceae worldwide; and (2) determine whether these directional changes are associated with specific climatic conditions or certain geographic regions, reflecting differences in historical forest management and land use. A bibliographic review was performed and 51 papers were found that met the search criteria, including a total of 121 case studies in which the relative dynamics of Pinaceae and Fagaceae were evaluated. Our results show that the relative abundance of Fagaceae increased in 71% of cases (P → F dynamics), whereas Pinaceae relative abundance increased in 17% of cases (F → P) and 12% of cases did not show clear changes. Increases of Fagaceae relative to Pinaceae were less clear in areas where vegetation dynamics were driven by natural disturbances. Our results indicate a widespread increase in dominance of Fagaceae species at the expense of Pinaceae across northern temperate forests, with the exception of Eastern North America. The potential implications for ecosystem function and forest resilience under ongoing climate change are large and clearly deserve further study. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Llegeix més

Climatic and volcanic forcing of tropical belt northern boundary over the past 800 years

Alfaro-Sánchez R., Nguyen H., Klesse S., Hudson A., Belmecheri S., Köse N., Diaz H.F., Monson R.K., Villalba R., Trouet V. (2018) Climatic and volcanic forcing of tropical belt northern boundary over the past 800 years. Nature Geoscience. 11: 933-938.
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Doi: 10.1038/s41561-018-0242-1

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The position of the northern boundary of the tropical belt affects the hydroclimate of many arid and semi-arid regions in the Northern Hemisphere. Widening of the tropical belt since the 1970s has largely been attributed to anthropogenic forcing. However, the relative influence of natural drivers of tropical belt expansion and contraction before this time is poorly understood. Here we use data on tree-ring widths from five mid-latitude regions in the Northern Hemisphere to reconstruct the movement of the northern boundary of the early spring tropical belt over the past 800 years (ad 1203–2003). Our reconstruction explains 45% of the interannual variance in the latitudinal extent of the Hadley circulation, a metric of the position of the tropical belt boundary. We find that the tropical belt contracted (expanded) during positive (negative) phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Pacific North American teleconnection patterns. The tropical belt also contracted significantly following major volcanic events that injected sulfur into the stratosphere. The longest period of persistent tropical belt expansion occurred in the late sixteenth century, during one of the coldest periods of the Little Ice Age. Our results warn of potential socio-economic consequences of future variations in tropical belt width driven by natural climate variability or stratospheric aerosol injections, whether volcanic or artificial. © 2018, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

Llegeix més

Bird community response in mountain pine forests of the Pyrenees managed under a shelterwood system

Ameztegui, A., Gil-Tena, A., Faus, J., Piqué, M., Brotons, L., Camprodon, J. (2018) Bird community response in mountain pine forests of the Pyrenees managed under a shelterwood system. Forest Ecology and Management. 407: 95-105.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2017.09.002

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Isotopic methods for non-destructive assessment of carbon dynamics in shrublands under long-term climate change manipulation

Andresen L.C., Domínguez M.T., Reinsch S., Smith A.R., Schmidt I.K., Ambus P., Beier C., Boeckx P., Bol R., de Dato G., Emmett B.A., Estiarte M., Garnett M.H., Kröel-Dulay G., Mason S.L., Nielsen C.S., Peñuelas J., Tietema A. (2018) Isotopic methods for non-destructive assessment of carbon dynamics in shrublands under long-term climate change manipulation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 9: 866-880.
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Doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12963

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Long-term climate change experiments are extremely valuable for studying ecosystem responses to environmental change. Examination of the vegetation and the soil should be non-destructive to guarantee long-term research. In this paper, we review field methods using isotope techniques for assessing carbon dynamics in the plant–soil–air continuum, based on recent field experience and examples from a European climate change manipulation network. Eight European semi-natural shrubland ecosystems were exposed to warming and drought manipulations. One field site was additionally exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2. We discuss the isotope methods that were used across the network to evaluate carbon fluxes and ecosystem responses, including: (1) analysis of the naturally rare isotopes of carbon (13C and 14C) and nitrogen (15N); (2) use of in situ pulse labelling with 13CO2, soil injections of 13C- and 15N-enriched substrates, or continuous labelling by free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and (3) manipulation of isotopic composition of soil substrates (14C) in laboratory-based studies. The natural 14C signature of soil respiration gave insight into a possible long-term shift in the partitioning between the decomposition of young and old soil carbon sources. Contrastingly, the stable isotopes 13C and 15N were used for shorter-term processes, as the residence time in a certain compartment of the stable isotope label signal is limited. The use of labelled carbon-compounds to study carbon mineralisation by soil micro-organisms enabled to determine the long-term effect of climate change on microbial carbon uptake kinetics and turnover. Based on the experience with the experimental work, we provide recommendations for the application of the reviewed methods to study carbon fluxes in the plant–soil–air continuum in climate change experiments. 13C-labelling techniques exert minimal physical disturbances, however, the dilution of the applied isotopic signal can be challenging. In addition, the contamination of the field site with excess 13C or 14C can be a problem for subsequent natural abundance (14C and 13C) or label studies. The use of slight changes in carbon and nitrogen natural abundance does not present problems related to potential dilution or contamination risks, but the usefulness depends on the fractionation rate of the studied processes. © 2018 The Authors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution © 2018 British Ecological Society

Llegeix més

The timing and widespread effects of the largest Holocene volcanic eruption in Antarctica

Antoniades D., Giralt S., Geyer A., Álvarez-Valero A.M., Pla-Rabes S., Granados I., Liu E.J., Toro M., Smellie J.L., Oliva M. (2018) The timing and widespread effects of the largest Holocene volcanic eruption in Antarctica. Scientific Reports. 8: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35460-x

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The caldera collapse of Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica, was comparable in scale to some of the largest eruptions on Earth over the last several millennia. Despite its magnitude and potential for far-reaching environmental effects, the age of this event has never been established, with estimates ranging from the late Pleistocene to 3370 years before present. Here we analyse nearby lake sediments in which we identify a singular event produced by Deception Island’s caldera collapse that occurred 3980 ± 125 calibrated years before present. The erupted tephra record the distinct geochemical composition of ejecta from the caldera-forming eruption, whilst an extreme seismic episode is recorded by lake sediments immediately overlying the collapse tephra. The newly constrained caldera collapse is now the largest volcanic eruption confirmed in Antarctica during the Holocene. An examination of palaeorecords reveals evidence in marine and lacustrine sediments for contemporaneous seismicity around the Antarctic Peninsula; synchronous glaciochemical volcanic signatures also record the eruption in ice cores spread around Antarctica, reaching >4600 km from source. The widespread footprint suggests that this eruption would have had significant climatic and ecological effects across a vast area of the south polar region. © 2018, The Author(s).

Llegeix més

Forest diversity plays a key role in determining the stand carbon stocks of Mexican forests

Arasa-Gisbert, R., Vayreda, J., Román-Cuesta, R.M., Villela, S.A., Mayorga, R., Retana, J. (2018) Forest diversity plays a key role in determining the stand carbon stocks of Mexican forests. Forest Ecology and Management. 415-416: 160-171.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.02.023

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Drivers of atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at European high-altitude sites

Arellano L., Fernández P., Van Drooge B.L., Rose N.L., Nickus U., Thies H., Stuchlík E., Camarero L., Catalan J., Grimalt J.O. (2018) Drivers of atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at European high-altitude sites. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18: 16081-16097.
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Doi: 10.5194/acp-18-16081-2018

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in bulk atmospheric deposition samples collected at four European high-mountain areas, Gossenköllesee (Tyrolean Alps), Redon (Central Pyrenees), Skalnate Pleso (High Tatra Mountains), and Lochnagar (Grampian Mountains) between 2004 and 2006. Sample collection was performed monthly in the first three sites and biweekly in Lochnagar. The number of sites, period of study and sampling frequency provide the most comprehensive description of PAH fallout in high mountain areas addressed so far. The average PAH deposition fluxes in Gossenköllesee, Redon and Lochnagar ranged between 0.8 and 2.1 μgm-2 month-1, and in Skalnate Pleso it was 9.7 μgm-2 month-1, showing the influence of substantial inputs from regional emission sources. The deposited distributions of PAHs were dominated by parent phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, representing 32 %-60% of the total. The proportion of phenanthrene, the most abundant compound, was higher at the sites of lower temperature, Gossenköllesee and Skalnate Pleso, showing higher transfer from gas phase to particles of the more volatile PAHs. The sites with lower insolation, e.g. those located at lower altitude, were those with a higher proportion of photooxidable compounds such as benz[a]anthracene. According to the data analysed, precipitation is the main driver of PAH fallout. However, when rain and snow deposition were low, particle settling also constituted an efficient driver for PAH deposition. Redon and Lochnagar were the two sites receiving the highest amounts of rain and snow and the fallout of PAH fluxes was related to this precipitation. No significant association was observed between long-range backward air trajectories and PAH deposition in Lochnagar, but in Redon PAH fallout at higher precipitation was essentially related to air masses originating from the North Atlantic, which were dominant between November and May (cold season). In these cases, particle-normalised PAH fallout was also associated with higher precipitation as these air masses were concurrent with lower temperatures, which enhanced gas to particle partitioning transfer. In the warm season (June-October), most of the air masses arriving at Redon originated from the south and particle deposition was enhanced as consequence of Saharan inputs. In these cases, particle settling was also a driver of PAH deposition despite the low overall PAH content of the Saharan particles. In Gossenköllesee, the site receiving lowest precipitation, PAH fallout was also related to particle deposition. The particle-normalised PAH fluxes were significantly negatively correlated to temperature, e.g. for air masses originating from central and eastern Europe, showing a dominant transfer from gas phase to particles at lower temperatures, which enhanced PAH fallout, mainly of the most volatile hydrocarbons. Comparison of PAH atmospheric deposition and lacustrine sedimentary fluxes showed much higher values in the latter case of 24-100 μgm-2 yr-1 vs. 120-3000 μgm-2 yr-1. A strong significant correlation was observed between these two fluxes, which is consistent with a dominant origin related to atmospheric deposition at each site. © 2018 IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. All rights resered.

Llegeix més

Role of seed size, phenology, oogenesis and host distribution in the specificity and genetic structure of seed weevils (Curculio spp.) in mixed forests

Arias-Leclaire H., Bonal R., GarcÍa-LÓpez D., Espelta J.M. (2018) Role of seed size, phenology, oogenesis and host distribution in the specificity and genetic structure of seed weevils (Curculio spp.) in mixed forests. Integrative Zoology. 13: 267-279.
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Doi: 10.1111/1749-4877.12293

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Synchrony between seed growth and oogenesis is suggested to largely shape trophic breadth of seed-feeding insects and ultimately to contribute to their co-existence by means of resource partitioning or in the time when infestation occurs. Here we investigated: (i) the role of seed phenology and sexual maturation of females in the host specificity of seed-feeding weevils (Curculio spp.) predating in hazel and oak mixed forests; and (ii) the consequences that trophic breadth and host distribution have in the genetic structure of the weevil populations. DNA analyses were used to establish unequivocally host specificity and to determine the population genetic structure. We identified 4 species with different specificity, namely Curculio nucum females matured earlier and infested a unique host (hazelnuts, Corylus avellana) while 3 species (Curculio venosus, Curculio glandium and Curculio elephas) predated upon the acorns of the 2 oaks (Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens). The high specificity of C. nucum coupled with a more discontinuous distribution of hazel trees resulted in a significant genetic structure among sites. In addition, the presence of an excess of local rare haplotypes indicated that C. nucum populations went through genetic expansion after recent bottlenecks. Conversely, these effects were not observed in the more generalist Curculio glandium predating upon oaks. Ultimately, co-existence of weevil species in this multi-host-parasite system is influenced by both resource and time partitioning. To what extent the restriction in gene flow among C. nucum populations may have negative consequences for their persistence in a time of increasing disturbances (e.g. drought in Mediterranean areas) deserves further research. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd

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