Policy-driven monitoring and evaluation: Does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems?

Waylen K.A., Blackstock K.L., van Hulst F.J., Damian C., Horváth F., Johnson R.K., Kanka R., Külvik M., Macleod C.J.A., Meissner K., Oprina-Pavelescu M.M., Pino J., Primmer E., Rîșnoveanu G., Šatalová B., Silander J., Špulerová J., Suškevičs M., Van Uytvanck J. (2019) Policy-driven monitoring and evaluation: Does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems?. Science of the Total Environment. 662: 373-384.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.462

Resum:

Inadequate Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is often thought to hinder adaptive management of socio-ecological systems. A key influence on environmental management practices are environmental policies: however, their consequences for M&E practices have not been well-examined. We examine three policy areas - the Water Framework Directive, the Natura 2000 Directives, and the Agri-Environment Schemes of the Common Agricultural Policy - whose statutory requirements influence how the environment is managed and monitored across Europe. We use a comparative approach to examine what is monitored, how monitoring is carried out, and how results are used to update management, based on publicly available documentation across nine regional and national cases. The requirements and guidelines of these policies have provided significant impetus for monitoring: however, we find this policy-driven M&E usually does not match the ideals of what is needed to inform adaptive management. There is a tendency to focus on understanding state and trends rather than tracking the effect of interventions; a focus on specific biotic and abiotic indicators at the expense of understanding system functions and processes, especially social components; and limited attention to how context affects systems, though this is sometimes considered via secondary data. The resulting data are sometimes publicly-accessible, but it is rarely clear if and how these influence decisions at any level, whether this be in the original policy itself or at the level of measures such as site management plans. Adjustments to policy-driven M&E could better enable learning for adaptive management, by reconsidering what supports a balanced understanding of socio-ecological systems and decision-making. Useful strategies include making more use of secondary data, and more transparency in data-sharing and decision-making. Several countries and policy areas already offer useful examples. Such changes are essential given the influence of policy, and the urgency of enabling adaptive management to safeguard socio-ecological systems. © 2019 The Authors

Llegeix més

Erratum to: Contrasting responses of autumn-leaf senescence to daytime and night-time warming (Nature Climate Change, (2018), 8, 12, (1092-1096), 10.1038/s41558-018-0346-z)

Wu C., Wang X., Wang H., Ciais P., Peñuelas J., Myneni R.B., Desai A.R., Gough C.M., Gonsamo A., Black A.T., Jassal R.S., Ju W., Yuan W., Fu Y., Shen M., Li S., Liu R., Chen J.M., Ge Q. (2019) Erratum to: Contrasting responses of autumn-leaf senescence to daytime and night-time warming (Nature Climate Change, (2018), 8, 12, (1092-1096), 10.1038/s41558-018-0346-z). Nature Climate Change. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/s41558-018-0392-6

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In the version of this Letter originally published, there were errors in Fig. 1a. The sites denoted purple were described in the legend as ‘Pday>0.05 & Pnight>0.05’, but should have been labelled ‘Pday<0.05 & Pnight>0.05’. The sites denoted green were described in the legend as ‘Pday>0.05 & Pnight>0.05’, but should have been labelled ‘Pday>0.05 & Pnight<0.05’. The sites denoted orange were described in the legend as ‘Pday>0.05 & Pnight>0.05’, but should have been labelled ‘Pday<0.05 & Pnight<0.05’. These errors have now been corrected. © 2019, Springer Nature Limited.

Llegeix més

Variation in compositional and structural components of community assemblage and its determinants

Yao J., Zhang C., De Cáceres M., Legendre P., Zhao X. (2019) Variation in compositional and structural components of community assemblage and its determinants. Journal of Vegetation Science. 30: 257-268.
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Doi: 10.1111/jvs.12708

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Questions: What are the ecological processes that determine the spatial distribution of species and species diversity? Partitioning beta diversity can provide fundamental insights into the processes that determine the spatial variation of species assemblages. However, studying beta diversity is conventionally based only on species composition data, ignoring the structural component of communities. Study site: Temperate mixed broadleaf–conifer forest in Jiaohe, Jilin Province, northeastern China. Methods: We characterized the variation of community assemblages in terms of species composition, size structure, or considering both components. We then employed environmental and spatial variables as explanatory factors to partition the variation in both compositional and structural components of community assemblage and assess the relative contributions of the niche and neutral processes to community assembly. Results: The values of overall beta diversity (BD statistics) and the relative contribution of individual sampling units to beta diversity (LCBD indices) depended on whether the species composition, size structure, or both together had been taken into account. The value of compositional–structural beta diversity was the largest, followed by traditional compositional beta diversity; the smallest was the structural beta diversity. The sites with high contributions to beta diversity (LCBD values) varied among structural and compositional components. The explanatory power of the environmental variables and the spatial variables also varied widely with different components of a community. The combination of environmental and spatial variables explained the highest proportion of variation (43.8%) in the compositional component and explained the lowest proportion of variation (25.4%) in the structural component of community assemblage. Conclusion: Both deterministic and stochastic processes are acting to determine community assemblages in terms of species composition and structure in our temperate forest site. Our study highlights the importance of considering the structural component of forest communities, in addition to compositional data, when studying beta diversity. © 2018 International Association for Vegetation Science

Llegeix més

Ecosystem structural changes controlled by altered rainfall climatology in tropical savannas

Zhang W., Brandt M., Penuelas J., Guichard F., Tong X., Tian F., Fensholt R. (2019) Ecosystem structural changes controlled by altered rainfall climatology in tropical savannas. Nature Communications. 10: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08602-6

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Tropical savannas comprise mixed woodland grassland ecosystems in which trees and grasses compete for water resources thereby maintaining the spatial structuring of this ecosystem. A global change in rainfall climatology may impact the structure of tropical savanna ecosystems by favouring woody plants, relative to herbaceous vegetation. Here we analysed satellite data and observed a relatively higher increase in woody vegetation (5%) as compared to the increase in annual maximum leaf area index (LAI max , an indicator of the total green vegetation production) (3%) in arid and semi-arid savannas over recent decades. We further observed a declining sensitivity of LAI max to annual rainfall over 56% of the tropical savannas, spatially overlapping with areas of increased woody cover and altered rainfall climatology. This suggests a climate-induced shift in the coexistence of woody and herbaceous vegetation in savanna ecosystems, possibly caused by altered hydrological conditions with significance for land cover and associated biophysical effects such as surface albedo and evapotranspiration. © 2019, The Author(s).

Llegeix més

Straw biochar increases the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacterial community for better rape (Brassica napus) growth and phosphate uptake

Zheng B.-X., Ding K., Yang X.-R., Wadaan M.A.M., Hozzein W.N., Peñuelas J., Zhu Y.-G. (2019) Straw biochar increases the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacterial community for better rape (Brassica napus) growth and phosphate uptake. Science of the Total Environment. 647: 1113-1120.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.454

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The direct application of inorganic-phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (iPSBs) for improving the efficiency of phosphorus (P) use leads to a low rate of bacterial survival. Biochar is a good inoculum carrier for microbial survival, and diverse feedstocks can have different effects. We generated an iPSB community using seven selected iPSB strains with various phylogenic taxonomies and P-solubilizing abilities. Biochar was then inoculated with the iPSB community and applied to soil in pots seeded with rape (Brassica napus). Growth of the rape for four weeks and the effects of biochars produced from six raw feedstocks, rice straw, rice husks, soybean straw, peanut shells, corn cobs and wood, were compared. The synthetic iPSB community had a larger capacity to solubilize inorganic P and exude organic anions than any of the individual strains. The structure of the iPSB community was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing four weeks after inoculation. All seven iPSB strains were detected, dominated by Arthrobacter defluvii 06-OD12. The abundance of the iPSB community was significantly correlated with rape biomass, P content and P uptake (P

Llegeix més

Responses to soil pH gradients of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria community

Zheng B.-X., Zhang D.-P., Wang Y., Hao X.-L., Wadaan M.A.M., Hozzein W.N., Peñuelas J., Zhu Y.-G., Yang X.-R. (2019) Responses to soil pH gradients of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria community. Scientific Reports. 9: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-37003-w

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Soil pH is commonly considered a dominant factor affecting the function of microbiota. Few studies, however, have focused on communities of bacteria able to solubilize inorganic phosphate (iPSB), which are important for the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P), because finding an effective method to assess the abundance and diversity of iPSB communities is difficult. We used a newly reported method of database alignment and quantified the gene pqqC to analyze the compositions of iPSB communities from five soils with pH gradients ranging from 4 to 8. The iPSB community structure differed significantly between these soil types. Among iPSB community, Bacillus was the dominant genus, followed by Arthrobacter and Streptomyces. A redundancy analysis indicated that soil pH was the most important of 15 soil factors and their pairwise interactions, accounting for 5.12% of the variance. The abundance of the iPSB communities increased with pH within the gradients which was confirmed by experimental adjustment of pH, suggesting that the defect P status in high pH soil was speculated as the driving force of iPSB community population. Our study demonstrated the dominant role of soil pH on the iPSB community, which may contribute to the understanding the possible mechanism of microbial P mobilization for better improvement of P use-efficiency. © 2019, The Author(s).

Llegeix més

Early stage litter decomposition across biomes

(2018) Early stage litter decomposition across biomes. . : -.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.012

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Annual Report CREAF 2017

(2018) Annual Report CREAF 2017. . : -.

Yearly fluctuations of flower landscape in a Mediterranean scrubland: Consequences for floral resource availability

(2018) Yearly fluctuations of flower landscape in a Mediterranean scrubland: Consequences for floral resource availability. . : -.
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Doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191268

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Fitxa AIGUA I CANVI GLOBAL (català)

(2018) Fitxa AIGUA I CANVI GLOBAL (català). . : -.

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