Generation and maintenance of predation hotspots of a functionally important herbivore in a patchy habitat mosaic

Farina, S., Oltra, A., Boada, J., Bartumeus, F., Romero, J., Alcoverro, T. (2017) Generation and maintenance of predation hotspots of a functionally important herbivore in a patchy habitat mosaic. Functional Ecology. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12985

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β-Ocimene, a Key Floral and Foliar Volatile Involved in Multiple Interactions between Plants and Other Organisms

Farré-Armengol G., Filella I., Llusià J., Peñuelas J. (2017) β-Ocimene, a Key Floral and Foliar Volatile Involved in Multiple Interactions between Plants and Other Organisms. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 22: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.3390/molecules22071148

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β-Ocimene is a very common plant volatile released in important amounts from the leaves and flowers of many plant species. This acyclic monoterpene can play several biological functions in plants, by potentially affecting floral visitors and also by mediating defensive responses to herbivory. The ubiquity and high relative abundance of β-ocimene in the floral scents of species from most plant families and from different pollination syndromes (ranging from generalism to specialism) strongly suggest that this terpenoid may play an important role in the attraction of pollinators to flowers. We compiled abundant evidence from published studies that supports β-ocimene as a generalist attractant of a wide spectrum of pollinators. We found no studies testing behavioural responses of pollinators to β-ocimene, that could directly demonstrate or deny the function of β-ocimene in pollinator attraction; but several case studies support that the emissions of β-ocimene in flowers of different species follow marked temporal and spatial patterns of emission, which are typical from floral volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that are involved in pollinator attraction. Furthermore, important β-ocimene emissions are induced from vegetative plant tissues after herbivory in many species, which have relevant functions in the establishment of tritrophic interactions. We thus conclude that β-ocimene is a key plant volatile with multiple relevant functions in plants, depending on the organ and the time of emission. Experimental behavioural studies on pure β-ocimene conducted with pollinating insects will be necessary to prove the assumptions made here.

Llegeix més

Atmospheric deposition, CO2, and change in the land carbon sink

Fernández-Martínez M., Vicca S., Janssens I.A., Ciais P., Obersteiner M., Bartrons M., Sardans J., Verger A., Canadell J.G., Chevallier F., Wang X., Bernhofer C., Curtis P.S., Gianelle D., Grünwald T., Heinesch B., Ibrom A., Knohl A., Laurila T., Law B.E., Limousin J.M., Longdoz B., Loustau D., Mammarella I., Matteucci G., Monson R.K., Montagnani L., Moors E.J., Munger J.W., Papale D., Piao S.L., Peñuelas J. (2017) Atmospheric deposition, CO2, and change in the land carbon sink. Scientific Reports. 7: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08755-8

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Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have continued to increase whereas atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen has declined in Europe and the USA during recent decades. Using time series of flux observations from 23 forests distributed throughout Europe and the USA, and generalised mixed models, we found that forest-level net ecosystem production and gross primary production have increased by 1% annually from 1995 to 2011. Statistical models indicated that increasing atmospheric CO2 was the most important factor driving the increasing strength of carbon sinks in these forests. We also found that the reduction of sulphur deposition in Europe and the USA lead to higher recovery in ecosystem respiration than in gross primary production, thus limiting the increase of carbon sequestration. By contrast, trends in climate and nitrogen deposition did not significantly contribute to changing carbon fluxes during the studied period. Our findings support the hypothesis of a general CO2-fertilization effect on vegetation growth and suggest that, so far unknown, sulphur deposition plays a significant role in the carbon balance of forests in industrialized regions. Our results show the need to include the effects of changing atmospheric composition, beyond CO2, to assess future dynamics of carbon-climate feedbacks not currently considered in earth system/climate modelling. © 2017 The Author(s).

Llegeix més

Nature beyond linearity: Meteorological variability and Jensen's Inequality can explain mast seeding behavior

Fernández-Martínez, M., Bogdziewicz, M., Espelta, J.M., Peñuelas, J. (2017) Nature beyond linearity: Meteorological variability and Jensen's Inequality can explain mast seeding behavior. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 5: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.3389/fevo.2017.00134

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Solar radiation and functional traits explain the decline of forest primary productivity along a tropical elevation gradient

Fyllas N.M., Bentley L.P., Shenkin A., Asner G.P., Atkin O.K., Díaz S., Enquist B.J., Farfan-Rios W., Gloor E., Guerrieri R., Huasco W.H., Ishida Y., Martin R.E., Meir P., Phillips O., Salinas N., Silman M., Weerasinghe L.K., Zaragoza-Castells J., Malhi Y. (2017) Solar radiation and functional traits explain the decline of forest primary productivity along a tropical elevation gradient. Ecology Letters. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1111/ele.12771

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One of the major challenges in ecology is to understand how ecosystems respond to changes in environmental conditions, and how taxonomic and functional diversity mediate these changes. In this study, we use a trait-spectra and individual-based model, to analyse variation in forest primary productivity along a 3.3 km elevation gradient in the Amazon-Andes. The model accurately predicted the magnitude and trends in forest productivity with elevation, with solar radiation and plant functional traits (leaf dry mass per area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, and wood density) collectively accounting for productivity variation. Remarkably, explicit representation of temperature variation with elevation was not required to achieve accurate predictions of forest productivity, as trait variation driven by species turnover appears to capture the effect of temperature. Our semi-mechanistic model suggests that spatial variation in traits can potentially be used to estimate spatial variation in productivity at the landscape scale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

Llegeix més

The fate of recently fixed carbon after drought release: Towards unravelling C storage regulation in Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris

Galiano, L., Timofeeva, G., Saurer, M., Siegwolf, R., Martínez-Vilalta, J., Hommel, R., Gessler, A. (2017) The fate of recently fixed carbon after drought release: Towards unravelling C storage regulation in Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris. Plant Cell and Environment. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1111/pce.12972

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Isohydric species are not necessarily more carbon limited than anisohydric species during drought

Garcia-Forner, N., Biel, C., Savé, R., Martínez-Vilalta, J. (2017) Isohydric species are not necessarily more carbon limited than anisohydric species during drought. Tree physiology. 37: 441-455.
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Doi: 10.1093/treephys/tpw109

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Diversification in arid mountains: biogeography and cryptic diversity of Pristurus rupestris rupestris in Arabia

Garcia-Porta, J., Simó-Riudalbas, M., Robinson, M., Carranza, S. (2017) Diversification in arid mountains: biogeography and cryptic diversity of Pristurus rupestris rupestris in Arabia. Journal of Biogeography. 44: 1694-1704.
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Doi: 10.1111/jbi.12929

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Spatial mixing of mitochondrial lineages and greater genetic diversity in some invasive populations of the American mink (Neovison vison) compared to native populations

García, K., Melero, Y., Palazón, S., Gosálbez, J., Castresana, J. (2017) Spatial mixing of mitochondrial lineages and greater genetic diversity in some invasive populations of the American mink (Neovison vison) compared to native populations. Biological Invasions. 19: 2663-2673.
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Doi: 10.1007/s10530-017-1475-4

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Multiple interactions networks: Towards more realistic descriptions of the web of life

García-Callejas, D., Molowny-Horas, R., Araújo, M.B. (2017) Multiple interactions networks: Towards more realistic descriptions of the web of life. Oikos. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1111/oik.04428

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