Cristóbal J, Ninyerola M,Pons X, Pla E (2006) Mejoras en la modelización de la temperatura del aire mediante el uso de la teledetección y de los sistemas de información geográfica In: Camacho Olmedo, M.T., J.A. Cañete Pérez, J.J. Lara Valle (Eds.) El acceso a la información espacial y las nuevas tecnologías geográficas, 93-103 pp (edición en CD-ROM). ISBN: 84-333-3944-6. Depósito legal: GR-1855-2006
Espelta J.M., Habrouk A., Retana J. (2006) Response to natural and simulated browsing of two Mediterranean oaks with contrasting leaf habit after a wildfire. Annals of Forest Science. 63: 441-447.EnllaçDoi: 10.1051/forest:2006024
In this study, we explore the response to browsing of two co-occurring Mediterranean oaks, the evergreen Quercus ilex and the deciduous Quercus cerrioides, resprouting in areas affected by large wildfires in central Catalonia (NE Spain). We tested three hypotheses: (i) differences in the preference of browsers will cause a higher impact of browsing on the deciduous oak, (ii) the deciduous oak will show a lower response to browsing than the evergreen one, and (iii) the response to browsing of Q. ilex and Q. cerrioides will differ depending on the season of the year when browsing occurs. To test the first hypothesis, we undertook the monitoring of the degree of browsing on resprouting evergreen and deciduous oaks after fire, while the second and third hypothesis were tested by mean of an experiment with different intensities of simulated browsing in different seasons of the year. The results indicate that Q. cerrioides individuals were more heavily browsed than Q. ilex ones. Moreover, browsing matched the two species in most of the size variables considered, cancelling the advantage in height and crown projection of the deciduous oak at the beginning of the resprouting process. In the experiment of simulated browsing, Q. ilex and Q. cerrioides showed a similar response to the different intensities of simulated browsing applied, but differences between species occurred depending on the season of the year when browsing occurred: Q. ilex showed a higher growth rate of crown projection than Q. cerrioides when it was browsed in autumn and winter, while the opposite pattern was obtained when stumps browsing occurred in spring and summer. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2006.
Eugenio M., Lloret F. (2006) Effects of repeated burning on Mediterranean communities of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vegetation Science. 17: 755-764.EnllaçDoi: 10.1658/1100-9233(2006)17[755:EORBOM]2.0.CO;2
Question: In relation to a single fire, do repeated wildfires in Mediterranean type ecosystems (1) reduce plant species richness or diversity; (2) modify patterns of abundance or dominance of plant species or (3) alter plant composition? Location: Pinus halepensis dominated communities of Catalonia, northeastern Iberian Peninsula, western Mediterranean Basin. Methods: Regional, paired design with 14 study sites, each consisting of a once burnt area (1994) and a twice burnt area (1975-1993 and 1994). Ten years after the last fire, we recorded all vascular plant species present in nested plots and quantified their relative abundances on transects. We compared species richness, diversity, dominance and relative abundance and species-area correlations between paired once and twice burnt areas and assessed their floristic composition similarity. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in species richness or diversity. Slopes of species-area correlations were higher in once burnt areas. In twice burnt areas, dominance by one or two species was higher. P. halepensis showed lower relative abundance and nanophanerophytes showed higher relative abundance. No differences were found for resprouter, seeder or resprouter-seeder species. Floristic composition similarity between paired areas tended to be higher in less productive sites. Conclusions: Fire recurrence had contrasting effects on species richness at different spatial scales. Repeated burning reduced the relative abundance of the dominant tree species, which resulted in a higher relative abundance of shrubs. It also promoted the dominance of herbs, particularly Brachypodium retusum. However, it did not change the relative abundance of regenerative groups. Paired areas were more similar as they were more Mediterranean in terms of climatic conditions. © IAVS; Opulus Press.
Eugenio M., Lloret F., Alcañiz J.M. (2006) Regional patterns of fire recurrence effects on calcareous soils of Mediterranean Pinus halepensis communities. Forest Ecology and Management. 221: 313-318.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2005.10.011
The effects of fire recurrence on soils were studied on calcareous sites of Mediterranean Pinus halepensis-dominated communities in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula). Soil organic horizons and mineral soils of 15 sites consisting in two adjacent areas, one burnt only once (in 1994) and the other burnt twice (in the same 1994 fire but also once before, from 1975 to 1993) were surveyed 9 years after the last fire. Fire recurrence decreased the occurrence and dry mass of soil organic horizons. Total nitrogen concentration in L organic horizon was higher in less recurrently burnt areas. No other significant difference between once- and twice-burnt areas was found for any studied chemical parameter either in organic L and FH horizons or in mineral soils. The present study underlines the fact that fire effects on soil organic horizons are accumulated through consecutive fires. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Filella I., Peñuelas J. (2006) Daily, weekly, and seasonal time courses of VOC concentrations in a semi-urban area near Barcelona. Atmospheric Environment. 40: 7752-7769.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.002
In order to study the daily, weekly, and seasonal patterns and possible origins of air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), measurements were taken on a minute-by-minute basis with a PTR-MS in the vicinity of a highway in a semi-urban site near Barcelona. Four periods of the year were chosen and samples were taken under different meteorological conditions and at different phenological stages of the surrounding vegetation. None of the measured VOCs concentrations exceeded air-quality guidelines. The results showed that diurnal, weekly, and seasonal fluctuations in measured VOC concentrations depended on variations in the strength of sources, as well as on photochemical activity and meteorological conditions. There was a decrease in concentrations in most VOCs when mixing depth, photochemical destruction, and wind speed increased at midday. On the other hand, high values of some VOCs occurred at night when the strength of their sinks and the mixing layer decreased. Interestingly, in June, night emissions and concentration peaks of methanol and acetone occurred in periods with dew formation and no wind. VOCs related to anthropogenic emissions presented a weekly pattern of variation with a clear distinction being found between working days and the weekend. The seasonal variation showed higher levels in December for all VOCs, except for isoprene. The thinning of the mixing layer leading to greater concentrations of volatiles and lower wind speeds in winter could account for those higher VOC levels. Benzene and toluene originated mainly from anthropogenic emissions. The sources of acetaldehyde, methanol, and acetone appeared to be mainly biogenic and these compounds were the most abundant of all the measured VOCs. Isoprene concentration patterns suggest a predominantly anthropogenic origin in December and March and a mainly biogenic origin in June and October. All these data provide useful information on the dynamics of VOCs in an area where ozone levels in summer exceed quite often the standard protection thresholds for O3. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Filella I., Peñuelas J. (2006) Daily, weekly and seasonal relationships among VOCs, NOx and O3in a semi-urban area near Barcelona. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry. 54: 189-201.EnllaçDoi: 10.1007/s10874-006-9032-z
Daily, weekly, and seasonal patterns of O3, NOx and VOCs and their relationship to meteorological conditions were studied in a semi-urban site near Barcelona by means of five-day long campaigns that included weekend and labor days in December, March, June, and October. The plant protection thresholds for ozone and NO2 were exceeded, respectively, on all the studied days in summer and on all the studied days. Ozone formation was predominantly local and relied on photochemical processes with VOCs playing a controlling role. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methanol, toluene, isoprene, and acetone (in this order) presented the highest O3 formation potential during the studied periods. These results highlight the important role in O3 formation played by VOC species such as acetaldehyde, methanol, and acetone, that all have a significant biogenic component. Thus, these VOCs must be taken into account in the discussion of any ozone abatement strategy. © Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2006.
Filella I., Peñuelas J., Llusià J. (2006) Dynamics of the enhanced emissions of monoterpenes and methyl salicylate, and decreased uptake of formaldehyde, by Quercus ilex leaves after application of jasmonic acid. New Phytologist. 169: 135-144.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01570.x
• Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signalling compound with a key role in both stress and development in plants, and is reported to elicit the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we studied the dynamics of such emissions and the linkage with photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. • We sprayed JA on leaves of the Mediterranean tree species Quercus ilex and measured the photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductances, and emissions and uptake of VOCs using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography after a dark-light transition. • Jasmonic acid treatment delayed the induction of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by approx. 20 min, and decreased them 24 h after spraying. Indications were found of both stomatal and nonstomatal limitations of photosynthesis. Monoterpene emissions were enhanced (20-30%) after JA spraying. Jasmonic acid also increased methyl salicylate (MeSa) emissions (more than twofold) 1 h after treatment, although after 24 h this effect had disappeared. Formaldehyde foliar uptake decreased significantly 24 h after JA treatment. • Both biotic and abiotic stresses can thus affect plant VOC emissions through their strong impact on JA levels. Jasmonic acid-mediated increases in monoterpene and MeSa emissions might have a protective role when confronting biotic and abiotic stresses. © New Phytologist (2005).
Eugenio M, Verkaik I, Lloret F, Espelta J.M. (2006) Recruitment and growth decline in Pinus halepensis populations after recurrent wildfires in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula). Forest Ecology and Management 231: 47-54
Lloret F, Bendinelli I. (2006) Els incendis forestals a Catalunya de principi del segle XX a partir de fons periodístiques. Orsis 21: 83-91
Serra P, Moré G, Pons X (2006) Weighting fidelity versus classified area in remote sensing classifications from a pixel and a polygon perspective” In: Caetano, M Painho, M. (Ed). Proceedings of Accuracy. Instituto Geográfico Portugués, 406-416 (ISBN 972-8867-27-1).
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