Morfopoulos C., Sperlich D., Penuelas J., Filella I., Llusia J., Medlyn B.E., Niinemets U., Possell M., Sun Z., Prentice I.C. (2014) A model of plant isoprene emission based on available reducing power captures responses to atmospheric CO2. New Phytologist. 203: 125-139.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/nph.12770
Summary: We present a unifying model for isoprene emission by photosynthesizing leaves based on the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis depends on a balance between the supply of photosynthetic reducing power and the demands of carbon fixation. We compared the predictions from our model, as well as from two other widely used models, with measurements of isoprene emission from leaves of Populus nigra and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) in response to changes in leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) under diverse ambient CO2 concentrations (Ca). Our model reproduces the observed changes in isoprene emissions with Ci and PPFD, and also reproduces the tendency for the fraction of fixed carbon allocated to isoprene to increase with increasing PPFD. It also provides a simple mechanism for the previously unexplained decrease in the quantum efficiency of isoprene emission with increasing Ca. Experimental and modelled results support our hypothesis. Our model can reproduce the key features of the observations and has the potential to improve process-based modelling of isoprene emissions by land vegetation at the ecosystem and global scales. © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.
Peñuelas J., Farré-Armengol G., Llusia J., Gargallo-Garriga A., Rico L., Sardans J., Terradas J., Filella I. (2014) Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions. Scientific Reports. 4: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1038/srep06727
The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting β-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.
Sardans J., Gargallo-Garriga A., Perez-Trujillo M., Parella T.J., Seco R., Filella I., Penuelas J. (2014) Metabolic responses of Quercus ilex seedlings to wounding analysed with nuclear magnetic resonance profiling. Plant Biology. 16: 395-403.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/plb.12032
Plants defend themselves against herbivory at several levels. One of these is the synthesis of inducible chemical defences. Using NMR metabolomic techniques, we studied the metabolic changes of plant leaves after a wounding treatment simulating herbivore attack in the Mediterranean sclerophyllous tree Quercus ilex. First, an increase in glucose content was observed in wounded plants. There was also an increase in the content of C-rich secondary metabolites such as quinic acid and quercitol, both related to the shikimic acid pathway and linked to defence against biotic stress. There was also a shift in N-storing amino acids, from leucine and isoleucine to asparagine and choline. The observed higher content of asparagine is related to the higher content of choline through serine that was proved to be the precursor of choline. Choline is a general anti-herbivore and pathogen deterrent. The study shows the rapid metabolic response of Q. ilex in defending its leaves, based on a rapid increase in the production of quinic acid, quercitol and choline. The results also confirm the suitability of 1H NMR-based metabolomic profiling studies to detect global metabolome shifts after wounding stress in tree leaves, and therefore its suitability in ecometabolomic studies. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Farré-Armengol G., Filella I., Llusia J., Peñuelas J. (2013) Floral volatile organic compounds: Between attraction and deterrence of visitors under global change. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 15: 56-67.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.ppees.2012.12.002
Plants produce and emit a large variety of volatile organic compounds that play key roles in interactions with abiotic and biotic environments. One of these roles is the attraction of animals (mainly insects) that act as vectors of pollen to ensure reproduction. Here we update the current knowledge of four key aspects of floral emissions: (1) the relative importance and interaction of olfactory signals and visual cues, (2) the spatial and temporal patterns of emission in flowers, (3) the attractive and defensive functions of floral volatiles and their interference, and (4) the effects of global change on floral emissions and plant-pollinator interactions. Finally, we propose future lines of research in this field that need to be addressed or investigated further. © 2012 Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics.
Filella I., Primante C., Llusia J., Martin Gonzalez A.M., Seco R., Farre-Armengol G., Rodrigo A., Bosch J., Penuelas J. (2013) Floral advertisement scent in a changing plant-pollinators market. Scientific Reports. 3: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1038/srep03434
Plant-pollinator systems may be considered as biological markets in which pollinators choose between different flowers that advertise their nectar/pollen rewards. Although expected to play a major role in structuring plant-pollinator interactions, community-wide patterns of flower scent signals remain largely unexplored. Here we show for the first time that scent advertisement is higher in plant species that bloom early in the flowering period when pollinators are scarce relative to flowers than in species blooming later in the season when there is a surplus of pollinators relative to flowers. We also show that less abundant flowering species that may compete with dominant species for pollinator visitation early in the flowering period emit much higher proportions of the generalist attractant β-ocimene. Overall, we provide a first community-wide description of the key role of seasonal dynamics of plant-specific flower scent emissions, and reveal the coexistence of contrasting plant signaling strategies in a plant-pollinator market.
Garbulsky M.F., Peñuelas J., Ogaya R., Filella I. (2013) Leaf and stand-level carbon uptake of a Mediterranean forest estimated using the satellite-derived reflectance indices EVI and PRI. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 34: 1282-1296.EnllaçDoi: 10.1080/01431161.2012.718457
Various aspects of global environmental change affect plant photosynthesis, the primary carbon input in ecosystems. Thus, accurate methods of measuring plant photosynthesis are important. Remotely sensed spectral indices can monitor in detail the green biomass of ecosystems, which provides a measure of potential photosynthetic capacity. In evergreen vegetation types, however, such as Mediterranean forests, the amount of green biomass changes little during the growing season and, therefore, changes in green biomass are not responsible for changes in photosynthetic rates in those forests. This study examined the net photosynthetic rates and the diametric increment of stems in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex using three spectral indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and photochemical reflectance index (PRI)) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Average annual EVI accounted for 83% of the variability of the diametric increment of Q. ilex stems over a 10 year period. NDVI was marginally correlated with the diametric increment of stems. This study was the first to identify a significant correlation between net photosynthetic rates and radiation use efficiency at the leaf level using PRI derived from satellite data analysed at the ecosystem level. These results suggest that each spectral index provided different and complementary information about ecosystem carbon uptake in a Mediterranean Q. ilex forest. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Penuelas J., Guenther A., Rapparini F., Llusia J., Filella I., Seco R., Estiarte M., Mejia-Chang M., Ogaya R., Ibanez J., Sardans J., Castano L.M., Turnipseed A., Duhl T., Harley P., Vila J., Estavillo J.M., Menendez S., Facini O., Baraldi R., Geron C., Mak J., Patton E.G., Jiang X., Greenberg J. (2013) Intensive measurements of gas, water, and energy exchange between vegetation and troposphere during the MONTES campaign in a vegetation gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Atmospheric Environment. 75: 348-364.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.04.032
MONTES ("Woodlands") was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at measuring energy, water and especially gas exchange between vegetation and atmosphere in a gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in NE Spain in the North Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The measurements were performed at a semidesertic area (Monegros), at a coastal Mediterranean shrubland area (Garraf), at a typical Mediterranean holm oak forest area (Prades) and at a wet temperate beech forest (Montseny) during spring (April 2010) under optimal plant physiological conditions in driest-warmest sites and during summer (July 2010) with drought and heat stresses in the driest-warmest sites and optimal conditions in the wettest-coolest site. The objective of this campaign was to study the differences in gas, water and energy exchange occurring at different vegetation coverages and biomasses. Particular attention was devoted to quantitatively understand the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) because of their biological and environmental effects in the WMB. A wide range of instruments (GC-MS, PTR-MS, meteorological sensors, O3 monitors,. .) and vertical platforms such as masts, tethered balloons and aircraft were used to characterize the gas, water and energy exchange at increasing footprint areas by measuring vertical profiles. In this paper we provide an overview of the MONTES campaign: the objectives, the characterization of the biomass and gas, water and energy exchange in the 4 sites-areas using satellite data, the estimation of isoprene and monoterpene emissions using MEGAN model, the measurements performed and the first results. The isoprene and monoterpene emission rates estimated with MEGAN and emission factors measured at the foliar level for the dominant species ranged from about 0 to 0.2mgm-2h-1 in April. The warmer temperature in July resulted in higher model estimates from about 0 to ca. 1.6mgm-2h-1 for isoprene and ca. 4.5mgm-2h-1 for monoterpenes, depending on the site vegetation and footprint area considered. There were clear daily and seasonal patterns with higher emission rates and mixing ratios at midday and summer relative to early morning and early spring. There was a significant trend in CO2 fixation (from 1 to 10mgCm-2d-1), transpiration (from1-5kgCm-2d-1), and sensible and latent heat from the warmest-driest to the coolest-wettest site. The results showed the strong land-cover-specific influence on emissions of BVOCs, gas, energy and water exchange, and therefore demonstrate the potential for feed-back to atmospheric chemistry and climate. •We present a multidisciplinary biosphere-atmosphere field campaign.•We measured a gradient from semi-desertic shrublands to wet temperate forests.•A wide range of instruments and vertical platforms were used.•Land cover strongly influenced emissions of BVOCs and gas, energy and water exchange.•Vegetation has strong potential for feed-back to atmospheric chemistry and climate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Penuelas J., Sardans J., Estiarte M., Ogaya R., Carnicer J., Coll M., Barbeta A., Rivas-Ubach A., Llusia J., Garbulsky M., Filella I., Jump A.S. (2013) Evidence of current impact of climate change on life: A walk from genes to the biosphere. Global Change Biology. 19: 2303-2338.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/gcb.12143
We review the evidence of how organisms and populations are currently responding to climate change through phenotypic plasticity, genotypic evolution, changes in distribution and, in some cases, local extinction. Organisms alter their gene expression and metabolism to increase the concentrations of several antistress compounds and to change their physiology, phenology, growth and reproduction in response to climate change. Rapid adaptation and microevolution occur at the population level. Together with these phenotypic and genotypic adaptations, the movement of organisms and the turnover of populations can lead to migration toward habitats with better conditions unless hindered by barriers. Both migration and local extinction of populations have occurred. However, many unknowns for all these processes remain. The roles of phenotypic plasticity and genotypic evolution and their possible trade-offs and links with population structure warrant further research. The application of omic techniques to ecological studies will greatly favor this research. It remains poorly understood how climate change will result in asymmetrical responses of species and how it will interact with other increasing global impacts, such as N eutrophication, changes in environmental N : P ratios and species invasion, among many others. The biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks on climate of all these changes in vegetation are also poorly understood. We here review the evidence of responses to climate change and discuss the perspectives for increasing our knowledge of the interactions between climate change and life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Peñuelas J., Marino G., Llusia J., Morfopoulos C., Farré-Armengol G., Filella I. (2013) Photochemical reflectance index as an indirect estimator of foliar isoprenoid emissions at the ecosystem level. Nature Communications. 4: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1038/ncomms3604
Terrestrial plants re-emit around 1-2% of the carbon they fix as isoprene and monoterpenes. These emissions have major roles in the ecological relationships among living organisms and in atmospheric chemistry and climate, and yet their actual quantification at the ecosystem level in different regions is far from being resolved with available models and field measurements. Here we provide evidence that a simple remote sensing index, the photochemical reflectance index, which is indicative of light use efficiency, is a good indirect estimator of foliar isoprenoid emissions and can therefore be used to sense them remotely. These results open new perspectives for the potential use of remote sensing techniques to track isoprenoid emissions from vegetation at larger scales. On the other hand, our study shows the potential of this photochemical reflectance index technique to validate the availability of photosynthetic reducing power as a factor involved in isoprenoid production. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Seco R., Penuelas J., Filella I., Llusia J., Schallhart S., Metzger A., Muller M., Hansel A. (2013) Volatile organic compounds in the western Mediterranean basin: Urban and rural winter measurements during the DAURE campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 13: 4291-4306.EnllaçDoi: 10.5194/acp-13-4291-2013
Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have key environmental and biological roles, but little is known about the daily VOC mixing ratios in Mediterranean urban and natural environments. We measured VOC mixing ratios concurrently at an urban and a rural site during the winter DAURE campaign in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, by means of PTR-MS at both locations: a PTR-Quad-MS at the urban site and a PTR-ToF-MS at the rural site. All VOC mixing ratios measured were higher at the urban site (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 1.68, 0.31, 0.58 and 2.71 ppbv, respectively), with the exception of some short-chain oxygenated VOCs such as acetone (with similar averages of 0.7-1.6 ppbv at both sites). The average diurnal pattern also differed between the sites. Most of the VOCs at the urban location showed their highest mixing ratios in the morning and evening. These peaks coincided with traffic during rush hour, the main origin of most of the VOCs analyzed. Between these two peaks, the sea breeze transported the urban air inland, thus helping to lower the VOC loading at the urban site. At the rural site, most of the measured VOCs were advected by the midday sea breeze, yielding the highest daily VOC mixing ratios (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 0.65, 0.07, 0.19, and 0.41 ppbv, respectively). Only biogenic monoterpenes showed a clear local origin at this site. In addition, the concentrations of fine particulate matter observed at both sites, together with the synoptic meteorological conditions and radio-sounding data, allowed the identification of different atmospheric scenarios that had a clear influence on the measured VOC mixing ratios. These results highlight the differences and relationships in VOC mixing ratios between nearby urban and rural areas in Mediterranean regions. Further research in other urban-rural areas is warranted to better understand the urban-rural influence on atmospheric VOC mixing ratios under different atmospheric conditions. © 2013 Author(s).
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