A First Checklist and Diversity of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Saline Dry Lake Chott El Hodna in Algeria, a Ramsar Conservation Wetland

Barech G., Khaldi M., Ziane S., Zedam A., Doumandji S., Sharaf M., Espadaler X. (2016) A First Checklist and Diversity of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Saline Dry Lake Chott El Hodna in Algeria, a Ramsar Conservation Wetland. African Entomology. 24: 143-152.
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Doi: 10.4001/003.024.0143

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In the first study of its kind, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were sampled near a unique natural environment, a large saline lake, Chott El Hodna, a Ramsar ConservationWetland in eastern Algeria. The species of ants were determined at two sites, Medbah and Birkraa in spring (March-April) 2011 using pitfall trapping and hand collecting.We provide a checklist and some observations on 24 species belonging to 14 genera and four subfamilies (Dolichoderinae, Dorylinae, Formicinae and Myrmicinae). To evaluate the ant diversity, we used data from pitfall traps for calculating ecological indexes. © Entomological Society of Southern Africa.

Llegeix més

Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Organic Pollutants In Vegetation From Remote And Rural Areas

Bartrons M., Catalan J., Penuelas J. (2016) Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Organic Pollutants In Vegetation From Remote And Rural Areas. Scientific Reports. 6: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/srep25446

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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) used in agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications are widely distributed and bioaccumulate in food webs, causing adverse effects to the biosphere. A review of published data for 1977-2015 for a wide range of vegetation around the globe indicates an extensive load of pollutants in vegetation. On a global perspective, the accumulation of POPs and PAHs in vegetation depends on the industrialization history across continents and distance to emission sources, beyond organism type and climatic variables. International regulations initially reduced the concentrations of POPs in vegetation in rural areas, but concentrations of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs at remote sites did not decrease or even increased over time, pointing to a remobilization of POPs from source areas to remote sites. The concentrations of compounds currently in use, PBDEs and PAHs, are still increasing in vegetation. Differential congener specific accumulation is mostly determined by continent - in accordance to the different regulations of HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs in different countries - and by plant type (PAHs). These results support a concerning general accumulation of toxic pollutants in most ecosystems of the globe that for some compounds is still far from being mitigated in the near future. © 2016, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Llegeix més

Pharmaceuticals and Personal-Care Products in Plants

Bartrons, M., Peñuelas, J. (2016) Pharmaceuticals and Personal-Care Products in Plants. Trends in Plant Science. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2016.12.010

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Foraging success under uncertainty: Search tradeoffs and optimal space use

Bartumeus, F., Campos, D., Ryu, W.S., Lloret-Cabot, R., Méndez, V., Catalan, J. (2016) Foraging success under uncertainty: Search tradeoffs and optimal space use. Ecology Letters. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1111/ele.12660

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European land CO2 sink influenced by NAO and East-Atlantic Pattern coupling

Bastos A., Janssens I.A., Gouveia C.M., Trigo R.M., Ciais P., Chevallier F., Peñuelas J., Rödenbeck C., Piao S., Friedlingstein P., Running S.W. (2016) European land CO2 sink influenced by NAO and East-Atlantic Pattern coupling. Nature Communications. 7: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/ncomms10315

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Large-scale climate patterns control variability in the global carbon sink. In Europe, the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influences vegetation activity, however the East-Atlantic (EA) pattern is known to modulate NAO strength and location. Using observation-driven and modelled data sets, we show that multi-annual variability patterns of European Net Biome Productivity (NBP) are linked to anomalies in heat and water transport controlled by the NAO-EA interplay. Enhanced NBP occurs when NAO and EA are both in negative phase, associated with cool summers with wet soils which enhance photosynthesis. During anti-phase periods, NBP is reduced through distinct impacts of climate anomalies in photosynthesis and respiration. The predominance of anti-phase years in the early 2000s may explain the European-wide reduction of carbon uptake during this period, reported in previous studies. Results show that improving the capability of simulating atmospheric circulation patterns may better constrain regional carbon sink variability in coupled carbon-climate models. © 2016, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Llegeix més

Taming twisted cubes

Baumann P., Hirschorn E., Maso J., Dumitru A., Merticariu V. (2016) Taming twisted cubes. 3rd International ACM SIGMOD Workshop on Managing and Mining Enriched Geo-Spatial Data, GeoRich 2016 - In conjunction with SIGMOD 2016. : 1-6.
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Doi: 10.1145/2948649.2948650

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Spatio-temporal grid data form a core structure in Earth and Space sciences alike. While Array Databases have set out to support this information category they only offer integer indexing, correspond-ing to equidistant grids. However, often grids in reality have irreg-ular structures, such as raw satellite swath data. We present an approach to modeling spatio-temporal regular and non-regular grids in a coherent manner, suitable for querying, transporting, and storing such data while remaining format indep-endent. We briefly describe an implementation based on the com-bination of a relational and an array DBMS. Our model is curr-ently under adoption as an international standard by OGC and ISO. © 2016 ACM.

Llegeix més

Learning and the transformative potential of citizen science

Bela G., Peltola T., Young J.C., Balázs B., Arpin I., Pataki G., Hauck J., Kelemen E., Kopperoinen L., Van Herzele A., Keune H., Hecker S., Suškevičs M., Roy H.E., Itkonen P., Külvik M., László M., Basnou C., Pino J., Bonn A. (2016) Learning and the transformative potential of citizen science. Conservation Biology. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1111/cobi.12762

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The number of collaborative initiatives between scientists and volunteers (i.e., citizen science) is increasing across many research fields. The promise of societal transformation together with scientific breakthroughs contributes to the current popularity of citizen science (CS) in the policy domain. We examined the transformative capacity of citizen science in particular learning through environmental CS as conservation tool. We reviewed the CS and social-learning literature and examined 14 conservation projects across Europe that involved collaborative CS. We also developed a template that can be used to explore learning arrangements (i.e., learning events and materials) in CS projects and to explain how the desired outcomes can be achieved through CS learning. We found that recent studies aiming to define CS for analytical purposes often fail to improve the conceptual clarity of CS; CS programs may have transformative potential, especially for the development of individual skills, but such transformation is not necessarily occurring at the organizational and institutional levels; empirical evidence on simple learning outcomes, but the assertion of transformative effects of CS learning is often based on assumptions rather than empirical observation; and it is unanimous that learning in CS is considered important, but in practice it often goes unreported or unevaluated. In conclusion, we point to the need for reliable and transparent measurement of transformative effects for democratization of knowledge production. © 2016, Society for Conservation Biology.

Llegeix més

Recruitment patterns of four tree species along elevation gradients in Mediterranean mountains: Not only climate matters

Benavides R., Escudero A., Coll L., Ferrandis P., Ogaya R., Gouriveau F., Peñuelas J., Valladares F. (2016) Recruitment patterns of four tree species along elevation gradients in Mediterranean mountains: Not only climate matters. Forest Ecology and Management. 360: 287-296.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.10.043

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Evidence of tree regeneration failure of some species in the Iberian Peninsula forests warns us about the impact that the global change may exert on the preservation of Mediterranean forests, such as we know them. Predictions agree about an exacerbation of the summer drought there, acknowledged as the main limiting factor for the recruits' survival. On the other hand, many studies have also proved the relevant role that local heterogeneity has over the spatial distribution of forest species recruitment by providing safe sites. Therefore, to unravel how climate interacts with local factors over juveniles' performance seems crucial for the design of successful management strategies that allow facing the global warming. Here, we surveyed the natural recruitment of four dominant tree species in seven mountainous regions in the Iberian Peninsula, along entire elevational ranges as surrogates of their climatic ranges. Two of them have alpine and temperate distributions with populations at their rear edge in the Spanish mountains: Fagus sylvatica and Pinus uncinata; and the other two have a genuine Mediterranean distribution: Quercus ilex and Pinus nigra. Our main goal was to analyze for each species the effect of climate, local factors (i.e. light availability, stand structure and ground cover) and the interactions among them to identify the main drivers leading the regeneration process, assessed in terms of presence, abundance and mean annual growth of juveniles. The results showed different environmental factors determining the recruitment patterns of each species. Nevertheless, they highlighted the pervasive role exerted by both climate and fine scale factors, particularly the co-occurring vegetation on recruits' abundance, and the light availability on their growth. Moreover, we found some interactions among annual mean temperature and local factors, suggesting that climate and local heterogeneity act hierarchically, i.e. the local conditions may mitigate or exacerbate the impact of climate on juveniles. These results advocate for further research to increase our knowledge on the complex net of interactions among factors involved in recruitment at different scales, which in turn should be taken into account and incorporated in forthcoming management strategies. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Llegeix més

Multiple geographic origins and high genetic differentiation of the Alpine marmots reintroduced in the Pyrenees

Bichet C., Sauzet S., Averty L., Dupont P., Ferrandiz-Rovira M., Ferrari C., Figueroa I., Tafani M., Rézouki C., López B.C., Cohas A. (2016) Multiple geographic origins and high genetic differentiation of the Alpine marmots reintroduced in the Pyrenees. Conservation Genetics. : 1-13.
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Doi: 10.1007/s10592-016-0851-4

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Reintroductions inherently involve a small number of founders leading reintroduced populations to be prone to genetic drift and, consequently, to inbreeding depression. Assessing the origins as the genetic diversity and structure of reintroduced populations compared to native populations are thus crucial to foresee their future. Here, we aim to clarify the origins of the Alpine marmots reintroduced in the Pyrenees and to evaluate the genetic consequences of this reintroduction after almost 30 years without monitoring. We search for the origins and compare the genetic structure and the genetic variability of three reintroduced Pyrenean and eight native Alpine populations using pairwise genetic distances, Bayesian clustering method and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal that the Alpine marmots reintroduced in the Pyrenees originated both from the Northern and the Southern Alps, and that, despite these multiple origins, none of the current Pyrenean marmots are admixed. The reintroduction led to a strong genetic differentiation and to a decrease in genetic diversity. This pattern likely results from the small number of founders and the low dispersal capacities of Alpine marmots and thus, highlight the necessity to consider both genetic characteristics and natural history when reintroducing a species. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Llegeix més

Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought

Binks O., Meir P., Rowland L., da Costa A.C.L., Vasconcelos S.S., de Oliveira A.A.R., Ferreira L., Christoffersen B., Nardini A., Mencuccini M. (2016) Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought. New Phytologist. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1111/nph.13927

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The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change. © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

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