Dalsgaard B, Martín González A M, Olesen J M, Ollerton J, Timmermann A, Andersen L H, Tossas AG (2009) Plant-hummingbird interactions in the West Indies: floral specialization gradients associated with environment and hummingbird size. Oecologia 159: 757-766.
Clavero M, Brotons L, Pons P, Sol S (2009) Prominent role of invasive species on global avian biodiversity loss. Conservation Biology 142: 2043-2049.
Boieiro M, Espadaler X, Rita Azedo AR, Collingwood CA, Serrano ARM (2009) One genus and three new ant species for Portugal (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Boletín de la SEA 45: 515-517.
Kumschick S, Schmidt-Entling M S, Bacher S, Hickler T, Espadaler X, Nentwig W (2009) Determinants of local ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species richness and activity density in Europe. Ecological Entomology 34: 748-754.
Demagrée GR, Ruthishauser T (2009) Origins of the Word "Phenology". Eos 90: 291.
Guédot C, Bosch, Kemp WP (2009) Relationship between body size and homing ability in the genus Osmia (Hymenoptera Megachilidae). Ecological Entomology 32: 158-161.
Rodrigo A, Martínez-Vilalta J, Piñol J, Lloret F, Ribas A, Retana J, Losarcos J (2009) Diseño y aplicación de una propuesta de aprendizaje cooperativo de los contendios del area de Ecología mediante el estudio de casos (inclou versió en anglés) . En “Hacia el espacio europeo de educación superior (EEES). Experiencias docentes innovadoras d e la UAB en ciencias sociales y en ciencias humanas”. Maite Martínez y Elena Añaños (eds.). Unitat d’Innovació Docent en Educació Superior. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Servei de Publicacions.
Armenteras D., Rodríguez N., Retana J. (2009) Are conservation strategies effective in avoiding the deforestation of the Colombian Guyana Shield?. Biological Conservation. 142: 1411-1419.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.002
There is general agreement regarding the importance of analysing the territories' roles under different biodiversity management figures in order to support better decision making in the management of natural resources in tropical countries. In this study we analyse the deforestation process to address the question of whether existing strategies such as national protected areas (PAs) and indigenous reservations (IRs) are effective protecting forests in the Colombian Guyana shield. We analyse whether these territories have successfully halted deforestation and agricultural frontier expansion by comparing deforestation occurring within these areas with their surroundings from 1985 to 2002. We also evaluate the impact of roads, illicit crops, and the size of PAs and IRs on deforestation rates. The results indicate that deforestation levels along the outside borders of both management figures were almost four times higher than inside declared PAs and 1.5 times higher than in IRs. However, within IRs, the loss of forested ecosystems was approximately six times greater than inside national parks. As a whole, roads were a significant factor associated with the changes in the region, as well as the influential expansion of coca cultivation particularly outside the national parks. The size of the PAs and indigenous lands also determined their positive impact as barrier against deforestation. Our results suggest strong pressure on areas surrounding PAs, driven by economic forces such as illegal crop expansion, particularly in the last decade. Indigenous lands with small territories have suffered intensive deforestation processes since the 1980s, but changes have been less dramatic in larger areas. Today, PAs are an effective barrier to deforestation, especially given their large extension, but are still under high risk. Future management plans should consider a designed infrastructure development paired with the establishment of new indigenous reservations with minimum viable sizes in order to control accessibility, natural resources extraction, and deforestation. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arnan X., Gracia M., Comas L., Retana J. (2009) Forest management conditioning ground ant community structure and composition in temperate conifer forests in the Pyrenees Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management. 258: 51-59.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.03.029
The search for indicators to monitor management impact on biodiversity is a crucial question because management practices promote changes in community structure and composition of different animal groups. This study explores the effect of widely conducted management practices (forest logging and livestock) in Pinus uncinata forests in the Pyrenees range (NE Spain) on the structure and composition of ground ant communities compared to those of old-growth stands. Forest structure clearly differed in stands with different forest managements. These stands managed for different uses also showed marked differences in structure and composition of ground ant communities. There was a great dominance of a single species, Formica lugubris, which accounted for 99% of ants collected in pitfall traps. Rarefaction curves indicated that species richness was highest in old-growth stands and lowest in even-aged ones, with woodland pasture stands showing an intermediate value. Classification methods allowed us to identify two groups of species: six species related to old-growth plots and three species (including F. lugubris) associated to managed stands. Habitat structure played an important role in determining the structure of ant communities: forests with high tree density but low basal area were the most favourable forest type for F. lugubris, while the abundance of the remaining ant species was negatively affected by the abundance of F. lugubris and by tree cover. © 2009.
Bartomeus I., Vil̀ M. (2009) Breeding system and pollen limitation in two supergeneralist alien plants invading Mediterranean shrublands. Australian Journal of Botany. 57: 109-115.EnllaçDoi: 10.1071/BT08169
Many widely known invasive plants are well integrated into native plant-pollinator networks. Typically, these invaders have entomophilous flowers which are visited by a diverse array of pollinators. The type of breeding system and the role that pollination services play in the reproductive success of invasive plants have, however, received little attention. We studied the breeding system and pollen limitation of two entomophilous invasive plants, Carpobrotus affine acinaciformis and Opuntia stricta, in different Mediterranean coastal localities in north-eastern Spain. Both species are, to some degree self-compatible; however, because of frequent visitation, open pollination increased the seed set in both species by at least 50%. Whereas O. stricta showed no pollen limitation, some populations of C. aff. acinaciformis had a lower seed set in open-pollinated flowers than in flowers where supplementary hand-pollination ensured out-crossing. This local pollen limitation in C. aff. acinaciformis could be due to the low efficiency of its visitors (mainly beetles) or its hybrid status. On the basis of previous studies on Carpobrotus sp. hybrid complexes, we suggest that the variability among sites in the seed set of open-pollinated flowers is caused by different degrees of hybrid introgression. Not withstanding, we found the C. aff. acinaciformis seed sets studied were higher than those reported in other regions. Further research is needed to assess the invasion potential of these hybrids in Mediterranean shrublands. © 2009 CSIRO.
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