Gerard F., Petit S., Smith G., Thomson A., Brown N., Manchester S., Wadsworth R., Bugar G., Halada L., Bezák P., Boltiziar M., de Badts E., Halabuk A., Mojses M., Petrovic F., Gregor M., Hazeu G., Mücher C.A., Wachowicz M., Huitu H., Tuominen S., Köhler R., Olschofsky K., Ziese H., Kolar J., Sustera J., Luque S., Pino J., Pons X., Roda F., Roscher M., Feranec J. (2010) Land cover change in Europe between 1950 and 2000 determined employing aerial photography. Progress in Physical Geography. 34: 183-205.EnllaçDoi: 10.1177/0309133309360141
BIOPRESS ('Linking Pan-European Land Cover Change to Pressures on Biodiversity'), a European Commission funded 'Global Monitoring for Environment and Security' project, produced land cover change information (1950-2000) for Europe from aerial photographs and tested the suitability of this for monitoring habitats and biodiversity. The methods and results related to the land cover change work are summarized. Changes in land cover were established through 73 window and 59 transect samples distributed across Europe. Although the sample size was too small and biased to fully represent the spatial variability observed in Europe, the work highlighted the importance of method consistency, the choice of nomenclature and spatial scale. The results suggest different processes are taking place in different parts of Europe: the Boreal and Alpine regions are dominated by forest management; abandonment and intensification are mainly encountered in the Mediterranean; urbanization and drainage are more characteristic of the Continental and Atlantic regions. © The Author(s) 2010.
Pino J, Rodà F, Rosell C, Campeny R (2010) Indicadores de fragmentación de hábitats causada por infraestructuras lineales de transporte. Organismo Autónomo Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid. 140 pp. ISBN 978-84-8014-782-8.
Pino J, Rodà F, Basnou C, Guirado M (2009) El canvi ambiental a la Mediterrània: la perspectiva del paisatge. In Barriocanal C, Varga D, Vila J (eds) Canvi ambiental global. Una perspectiva multidisciplinar. Quaderns de Medi Ambient 1, Documenta Universitaria, Girona, pp. 91-102.
Kuussaari M., Bommarco R., Heikkinen R.K., Helm A., Krauss J., Lindborg R., Öckinger E., Pärtel M., Pino J., Rodà F., Stefanescu C., Teder T., Zobel M., Steffan-Dewenter I. (2009) Extinction debt: a challenge for biodiversity conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 24: 564-571.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.tree.2009.04.011
Local extinction of species can occur with a substantial delay following habitat loss or degradation. Accumulating evidence suggests that such extinction debts pose a significant but often unrecognized challenge for biodiversity conservation across a wide range of taxa and ecosystems. Species with long generation times and populations near their extinction threshold are most likely to have an extinction debt. However, as long as a species that is predicted to become extinct still persists, there is time for conservation measures such as habitat restoration and landscape management. Standardized long-term monitoring, more high-quality empirical studies on different taxa and ecosystems and further development of analytical methods will help to better quantify extinction debt and protect biodiversity. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guirado M., Pino J., Rodà F., Basnou C. (2008) Quercus and Pinus cover are determined by landscape structure and dynamics in peri-urban Mediterranean forest patches. Plant Ecology. 194: 109-119.EnllaçDoi: 10.1007/s11258-007-9278-9
Successional dynamics in Mediterranean forests have been modulated by anthropogenic disturbances during thousands of years, especially in areas densely populated since ancient times. Our objective is to determine whether pine tree cover (early-successional species) and oak tree cover (late-successional species), used as a surrogate of successional stage of peri-urban fragmented forests in the Vallès lowlands (Catalonia, NE, Spain), are primarily determined by (1) climate and topography; (2) anthropogenic disturbances; (3) patch structure; or (4) patch dynamics from 1956 to 1993. Quercus spp. and Pinus spp. tree cover were separately recorded on 252 randomly selected plots of 100 m2, within forest patches ranging in size from 0.25 to 218 ha. Multiple linear regressions indicated that forest patch history is the most important variable determining oak and pine tree cover: new forest patches showed higher pine and lower oak tree cover than recently split patches (i.e. those that became fragmented from large forest areas after 1956). Patches already existing as such in 1956 (pre-existent patches) showed higher pine cover than recently split patches. Oak cover increased and pine cover decreased with increasing forest connectivity of the patch. Finally, highly frequented forests were related to high cover of pines. Climatic and topographic variables were not significant. We conclude that pine and oak cover in these peri-urban forests are mainly determined by recent patch dynamics, but also by the spatial pattern of patches. However, human-induced disturbance can modulate this as there is some evidence for pine being associated with a high human frequentation. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Pino J, Rodà F, Basnou C, Guirado M (2008) Canvis en la superfície i el grau de fragmentació del bosc a la plana del Vallès entre els anys 1993 i 2000. Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica 51: 59-77.
Santos K.C., Pino J., Rodà F., Guirado M., Ribas J. (2008) Beyond the reserves: The role of non-protected rural areas for avifauna conservation in the area of Barcelona (NE of Spain). Landscape and Urban Planning. 84: 140-151.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.07.004
This paper explores the association of a set of land variables with bird species richness in the area of Barcelona, subgrouped into nesting and wintering, and three classes of conservation concern: total species, species of European Concern (SPEC 2 and 3), and species included in the Birds Directive. It also analyzes the association of the species richness among these groups, and compares their values inside and outside of the protected areas. Bird data were obtained by field sampling within 1700 l km × l km UTM grid cells, which were sampled between 1990 and 1998 until the entire study area had been assessed. For each cell, derivatives of the following variables were calculated: climate, relief, landscape, geographic position, and human settlement. Relative forest and cropland covers and landscape diversity were the main positive correlates of total species richness, while the average elevation was the prime negative correlate for wintering species. SPEC and Birds Directive species richness were negatively related to forest and urban covers, and positively related to that of croplands and shrublands-grasslands. The species richness of birds of no conservation concern (non-listed) was generally positively related to those of SPEC and Birds Directive species, regardless of whether they were wintering or nesting. There was significantly more bird richness outside the reserves in all but one of the classes of conservation concern-nesting Birds Directive. The study confirms the importance of open habitats and heterogeneous rural landscapes for bird species richness in the study area, and provides conservation guidelines based on regional policy. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guirado M., Pino J., Rodà F. (2007) Comparing the role of site disturbance and landscape properties on understory species richness in fragmented periurban Mediterranean forests. Landscape Ecology. 22: 117-129.EnllaçDoi: 10.1007/s10980-006-9009-y
We hypothesized that the spatial configuration and dynamics of periurban forest patches in Barcelona (NE of Spain) played a minor role in determining plant species richness and assemblage compared to site conditions, and particularly to both direct (measured at plot level) and potential (inferred from landscape metrics) human-associated site disturbance. The presence of all understory vascular plants was recorded on 252 plots of 100 m2 randomly selected within forest patches ranging in size from 0.25 ha to 218 ha. Species were divided into 6 groups, according to their ecology and conservation status. Site condition was assessed at plot level and included physical attributes, human-induced disturbance and Quercus spp. tree cover. Landscape structure and dynamics were assessed from patch metrics and patch history. We also calculated a set of landscape metrics related to potential human accessibility to forests. Results of multiple linear regressions indicated that the variance explained for non-forest species groups was higher than for forest species richness. Most of the main correlates corresponded to site disturbance variables related to direct human alteration, or to landscape variables associated to indirect human effects on forests: Quercus tree cover (a proxy for successional status) was the most important correlate of non-forest species richness, which decreased when Quercus tree cover increased. Human-induced disturbance was an important correlate of synanthropic and total species richness, which were higher in recently managed and in highly frequented forests. Potential human accessibility also affected the richness of most species groups. In contrast, patch size, patch shape and connectivity played a minor role, as did patch history. We conclude that human influence on species richness in periurban forests takes place on a small scale, whereas large-scale effects attributable to landscape structure and fragmentation are comparatively less important. Implications of these results for the conservation of plant species in periurban forests are discussed. © 2007 Springer Science + Business Media B.V.
Guirado M, Pino J, Rodà F (2007) Quercus and Pinus cover are determined by landscape structure and dynamics in peri-urban Mediterranean forest patches. Plant Ecology (doi 10.1007/s11258-007-9278-9)
Guirado M., Pino J., Rodà F. (2006) Understorey plant species richness and composition in metropolitan forest archipelagos: Effects of forest size, adjacent land use and distance to the edge. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 15: 50-62.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/j.1466-822X.2006.00197.x
Aim: To address the relative role of adjacent land use, distance to forest edge, forest size and their interactions on understorey plant species richness and composition in perimetropolitan forests. Location: The metropolitan area of Barcelona, north-eastern Spain. Methods: Twenty sampling sites were distributed in two forest size-categories: small forest patches (8-90 ha) and large forest areas (> 18,000 ha). For each forest-size category, five sites were placed adjacent to crops and five sites adjacent to urban areas. Vascular plant species were recorded and human frequentation was scored visually in 210 10 ×10 m plots placed at 10, 50 and 100 m from the forest edge, and additionally at 500 m in large forest areas. Plant species were grouped according to their ecology and rarity categories. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination was carried out to detect patterns of variation in species assemblage, and to explore the relationships between these patterns and the richness of the species groups and the studied factors. Factorial ANOVAS were used to test the significance of the studied factors on the richness of species groups. Relationships between human frequentation and the studied variables were assessed through contingency tables. Results: Forest-size category was the main factor affecting synanthropic species (i.e. those thriving in man-made or man-disturbed habitats). Synanthropic species richness decreased with increasing distance from the forest edge and, when forests were adjacent to crops, it was higher in small forest patches than in large forest areas. Richness of rare forest species was lower in small forest patches than in large forest areas when forests were adjacent to urban areas. Richness of common forest species and of all forest species together were higher close to the forest edge than far from it when forests were adjacent to urban areas. Forests adjacent to urban areas were more likely to experience high human frequentation, particularly in those plots nearest to the forest edge. Main conclusions: Forest-size category and adjacent land use were the most important factors determining species richness and composition. The preservation of large forests adjacent to crops in peri-urban areas is recommended, because they are less frequented by humans, are better buffered against the percolation of nonforest species and could favour the persistence of rare forest species. © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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