(2018) Fitxa AIGUA I CANVI GLOBAL (català). . : -.
(2018) Annual Report CREAF 2017. . : -.
(2018) Early stage litter decomposition across biomes. . : -.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.012
Alberich J.P., Mukhtarov F., Dieperink C., Driessen P., Broekman A. (2018) Upscaling urban recycled water schemes: An analysis of the presence of required governance conditions in the city of Sabadell (Spain). Water (Switzerland). 11: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.3390/w11010011
Cleaning wastewater and using it again for secondary purposes is a measure to address water scarcity in urban areas. However, upscaling of recycled water schemes is challenging, and little is known about the governance conditions which are required for this. This paper addresses this knowledge gap. Based on a review of governance literature we suggest that five governance conditions are necessary for a successful upscaling of recycled water schemes: (1) policy leadership, (2) policy coordination, (3) availability of financial resources, (4) awareness of a problem, and (5) the presence of a public forum. We applied these concepts in a case study on the upscaling of a recycled water scheme in Sabadell, Spain. We reviewed policy documents, conducted a set of 21 semi-structured interviews, and attended two policy meetings about the subject. Our results suggest that Sabadell meets the required conditions for upscaling reused water to a certain extent. However, a public forum is not well-developed. We discuss the implications of this and conclude with some suggestions for future research and some lessons for other cities that plan to upscale their recycled water schemes. © 2018 by the authors.
Alfaro Reyna T., Retana J., Martínez-Vilalta J. (2018) Is there a substitution of Pinaceae by Fagaceae in temperate forests at the global scale?. Global and Planetary Change. 166: 41-47.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.04.001
Reports on forest decline, changes in species composition and the distribution of forests in response to changes in climate and land use are increasing worldwide. Temperate forests are largely dominated by two tree families: Pinaceae and Fagaceae. These two families have distinct functional properties and different responses to environmental factors. Several local and regional assessments, particularly in Europe, have found that species of Fagaceae are invading areas previously dominated by Pinaceae. The main aim of this synthesis study is to analyze the relative dynamics of Pinaceae and Fagaceae species in temperate forests around the world, with the following specific objectives: (1) establish if there is a consistent directional substitution of Pinaceae by Fagaceae worldwide; and (2) determine whether these directional changes are associated with specific climatic conditions or certain geographic regions, reflecting differences in historical forest management and land use. A bibliographic review was performed and 51 papers were found that met the search criteria, including a total of 121 case studies in which the relative dynamics of Pinaceae and Fagaceae were evaluated. Our results show that the relative abundance of Fagaceae increased in 71% of cases (P → F dynamics), whereas Pinaceae relative abundance increased in 17% of cases (F → P) and 12% of cases did not show clear changes. Increases of Fagaceae relative to Pinaceae were less clear in areas where vegetation dynamics were driven by natural disturbances. Our results indicate a widespread increase in dominance of Fagaceae species at the expense of Pinaceae across northern temperate forests, with the exception of Eastern North America. The potential implications for ecosystem function and forest resilience under ongoing climate change are large and clearly deserve further study. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
Alfaro-Sánchez R., Nguyen H., Klesse S., Hudson A., Belmecheri S., Köse N., Diaz H.F., Monson R.K., Villalba R., Trouet V. (2018) Climatic and volcanic forcing of tropical belt northern boundary over the past 800 years. Nature Geoscience. 11: 933-938.EnllaçDoi: 10.1038/s41561-018-0242-1
The position of the northern boundary of the tropical belt affects the hydroclimate of many arid and semi-arid regions in the Northern Hemisphere. Widening of the tropical belt since the 1970s has largely been attributed to anthropogenic forcing. However, the relative influence of natural drivers of tropical belt expansion and contraction before this time is poorly understood. Here we use data on tree-ring widths from five mid-latitude regions in the Northern Hemisphere to reconstruct the movement of the northern boundary of the early spring tropical belt over the past 800 years (ad 1203–2003). Our reconstruction explains 45% of the interannual variance in the latitudinal extent of the Hadley circulation, a metric of the position of the tropical belt boundary. We find that the tropical belt contracted (expanded) during positive (negative) phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Pacific North American teleconnection patterns. The tropical belt also contracted significantly following major volcanic events that injected sulfur into the stratosphere. The longest period of persistent tropical belt expansion occurred in the late sixteenth century, during one of the coldest periods of the Little Ice Age. Our results warn of potential socio-economic consequences of future variations in tropical belt width driven by natural climate variability or stratospheric aerosol injections, whether volcanic or artificial. © 2018, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
Ameztegui, A., Gil-Tena, A., Faus, J., Piqué, M., Brotons, L., Camprodon, J. (2018) Bird community response in mountain pine forests of the Pyrenees managed under a shelterwood system. Forest Ecology and Management. 407: 95-105.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2017.09.002
Andresen L.C., Domínguez M.T., Reinsch S., Smith A.R., Schmidt I.K., Ambus P., Beier C., Boeckx P., Bol R., de Dato G., Emmett B.A., Estiarte M., Garnett M.H., Kröel-Dulay G., Mason S.L., Nielsen C.S., Peñuelas J., Tietema A. (2018) Isotopic methods for non-destructive assessment of carbon dynamics in shrublands under long-term climate change manipulation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 9: 866-880.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12963
Long-term climate change experiments are extremely valuable for studying ecosystem responses to environmental change. Examination of the vegetation and the soil should be non-destructive to guarantee long-term research. In this paper, we review field methods using isotope techniques for assessing carbon dynamics in the plant–soil–air continuum, based on recent field experience and examples from a European climate change manipulation network. Eight European semi-natural shrubland ecosystems were exposed to warming and drought manipulations. One field site was additionally exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2. We discuss the isotope methods that were used across the network to evaluate carbon fluxes and ecosystem responses, including: (1) analysis of the naturally rare isotopes of carbon (13C and 14C) and nitrogen (15N); (2) use of in situ pulse labelling with 13CO2, soil injections of 13C- and 15N-enriched substrates, or continuous labelling by free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and (3) manipulation of isotopic composition of soil substrates (14C) in laboratory-based studies. The natural 14C signature of soil respiration gave insight into a possible long-term shift in the partitioning between the decomposition of young and old soil carbon sources. Contrastingly, the stable isotopes 13C and 15N were used for shorter-term processes, as the residence time in a certain compartment of the stable isotope label signal is limited. The use of labelled carbon-compounds to study carbon mineralisation by soil micro-organisms enabled to determine the long-term effect of climate change on microbial carbon uptake kinetics and turnover. Based on the experience with the experimental work, we provide recommendations for the application of the reviewed methods to study carbon fluxes in the plant–soil–air continuum in climate change experiments. 13C-labelling techniques exert minimal physical disturbances, however, the dilution of the applied isotopic signal can be challenging. In addition, the contamination of the field site with excess 13C or 14C can be a problem for subsequent natural abundance (14C and 13C) or label studies. The use of slight changes in carbon and nitrogen natural abundance does not present problems related to potential dilution or contamination risks, but the usefulness depends on the fractionation rate of the studied processes. © 2018 The Authors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution © 2018 British Ecological Society
Antoniades D., Giralt S., Geyer A., Álvarez-Valero A.M., Pla-Rabes S., Granados I., Liu E.J., Toro M., Smellie J.L., Oliva M. (2018) The timing and widespread effects of the largest Holocene volcanic eruption in Antarctica. Scientific Reports. 8: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35460-x
The caldera collapse of Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica, was comparable in scale to some of the largest eruptions on Earth over the last several millennia. Despite its magnitude and potential for far-reaching environmental effects, the age of this event has never been established, with estimates ranging from the late Pleistocene to 3370 years before present. Here we analyse nearby lake sediments in which we identify a singular event produced by Deception Island’s caldera collapse that occurred 3980 ± 125 calibrated years before present. The erupted tephra record the distinct geochemical composition of ejecta from the caldera-forming eruption, whilst an extreme seismic episode is recorded by lake sediments immediately overlying the collapse tephra. The newly constrained caldera collapse is now the largest volcanic eruption confirmed in Antarctica during the Holocene. An examination of palaeorecords reveals evidence in marine and lacustrine sediments for contemporaneous seismicity around the Antarctic Peninsula; synchronous glaciochemical volcanic signatures also record the eruption in ice cores spread around Antarctica, reaching >4600 km from source. The widespread footprint suggests that this eruption would have had significant climatic and ecological effects across a vast area of the south polar region. © 2018, The Author(s).
Arasa-Gisbert, R., Vayreda, J., Román-Cuesta, R.M., Villela, S.A., Mayorga, R., Retana, J. (2018) Forest diversity plays a key role in determining the stand carbon stocks of Mexican forests. Forest Ecology and Management. 415-416: 160-171.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.02.023
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