Aparicio J.M., Muñoz A., Bonal R., Møller A.P. (2012) Population differences in density and resource allocation of ornamental tail feathers in the barn swallow. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 105: 925-936.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2011.01830.x
Many organisms show well-defined latitudinal clines in morphology, which appear to be caused by spatially varying natural selection, resulting in different optimal phenotypes in each location. Such spatial variability raises an interesting question, with different prospects for the action of sexual selection on characters that have a dual purpose, such as locomotion and sexual attraction. The outermost tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) represent one such character, and their evolution has been a classic model subject to intense debate. In the present study, we examined individuals from four European populations to analyze geographical variation in the length and mass of tail feathers in relation to body size and wing size. Tail feather length differed between sexes and populations, and such variation was a result of the effects of natural selection, acting through differences in body size and wing size, as well as the effects of sexual selection that favours longer tails. The extra enlargement of the tail promoted by sexual selection (i.e. beyond the natural selection optimum) could be achieved by increasing investment in ornaments, and by modifying feather structure to produce longer feathers of lower density. These two separate processes accounting for the production of longer and more costly tail feathers and less dense feathers, respectively, are consistent with the hypothesis that both Zahavian and Fisherian mechanisms may be involved in the evolution of the long tails of male barn swallows. We hypothesize that the strength of sexual selection increases with latitude because of the need for rapid mating as a result of the short duration of the breeding season at high latitudes. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London.
Bonal R., Hernández M., Ortego J., Muñoz A., Espelta J.M. (2012) Positive cascade effects of forest fragmentation on acorn weevils mediated by seed size enlargement. Insect Conservation and Diversity. 5: 381-388.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2011.00172.x
1.Today, forest fragmentation is one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide. In this context, fragmented populations of specialised forest organisms face an increasing risk of extinction because of factors such as local food scarcity. Nonetheless, the role of food availability may differ depending on organism size, which is expected to determine the energy requirements and mobility between fragments. 2.A field study was carried out on Curculio elephas, a forest beetle with low dispersal potential, whose larval development takes place in oak Quercus spp. acorns. 3.For a similar seed crop per tree, acorn size was larger in isolated oaks than in trees located in forest patches. Thus, fragmentation increased local food availability for C. elephas. Larger acorns enabled larval size to increase, a key fitness proxy associated with individual survival, adult size, and potential female fecundity. Indeed, the number of both adults and larvae was higher in isolated trees than in forest patches. 4.In the current scenario of increasing forest fragmentation, the survival likelihood of specialist insects may strongly depend on their ability to adapt to altered environmental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on how some forest insects may take advantage of fragmentation-mediated changes to survive in isolated trees. 5.From a conservation perspective, management policies should preserve isolated trees as a source of seeds and fauna for the natural regeneration of forest ecosystems after unproductive farmlands have been abandoned. © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.
Muñoz A., Bonal R., Espelta J.M. (2012) Responses of a scatter-hoarding rodent to seed morphology: Links between seed choices and seed variability. Animal Behaviour. 84: 1435-1442.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.09.011
Seed preferences of scatter-hoarding granivores may influence the evolution of seed traits in plants. However, there is little evidence linking the granivores' responses to specific seed traits to the variability of seeds in a single plant species. This information is essential for understanding how the decisions of granivores can shape plant life histories. We analysed how seed morphology (size and shape) of the Holm oak, Quercus ilex, influences seed choices of the seed-disperser, the Algerian mouse, Mus spretus. We studied the seed variability of the oak and whether the frequency of seed phenotypes matched the seed choices of the disperser. The probabilities of seed removal decreased as the seeds became larger and more bullet-shaped, so that seeds that were simultaneously large and bullet-shaped had the lowest probabilities of being dispersed. These seeds are probably refused by rodents because they impose higher handling and transport costs. The size and shape of the Holm oak seeds were highly variable between trees, but extraordinarily consistent within a single tree over different years. However, the analysis of seed variability revealed a disproportionately low frequency of large bullet-shaped phenotypes, which are those barely removed by rodents. Seed preferences of dispersers of species with high seed variability between trees can lead to differences in the chances of seeds produced by different trees being dispersed. Those seed phenotypes preferred by dispersers could make a higher contribution to the next generation, which could influence the evolution and variability of seeds in a plant species. © 2012 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Ortego J, Bonal R, Muñoz A (2012) Los árboles que el bosque dejó atrás. Quercus 305: 32-37.
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