Recent population decline and selection shape diversity of taxol-related genes

Burgarella C., NavascuÉs M., Zabal-Aguirre M., Berganzo E., Riba M., Mayol M., Vendramin G.G., González-MartÍnez S.C. (2012) Recent population decline and selection shape diversity of taxol-related genes. Molecular Ecology. 21: 3006-3021.
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Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05532.x

Resum:

Taxanes are defensive metabolites produced by Taxus species (yews) and used in anticancer therapies. Despite their medical interest, patterns of natural diversity in taxane-related genes are unknown. We examined variation at five main genes of Taxus baccata in the Iberian Peninsula, a region where unique yew genetic resources are endangered. We looked at several gene features and applied complementary neutrality tests, including diversity/divergence tests, tests solely based on site frequency spectrum (SFS) and Zeng's compound tests. To account for specific demography, microsatellite data were used to infer historical changes in population size based on an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach. Polymorphism-divergence tests pointed to positive selection for genes TBT and TAT and balancing selection for DBAT. In addition, neutrality tests based on SFS found that while a recent reduction in population size may explain most statistics' values, selection may still be in action in genes TBT and DBAT, at least in some populations. Molecular signatures on taxol genes suggest the action of frequent selective waves with different direction or intensity, possibly related to varying adaptive pressures produced by the host-enemy co-evolution on defence-related genes. Such natural selection processes may have produced taxane variants still undiscovered. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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Patterns of genetic variability and habitat occupancy in Crepis triasii (Asteraceae) at different spatial scales: insights on evolutionary processes leading to diversification in continental islands.

Mayol M, Palau C, Rosselló JA, González-Martínez SC, Molins A, Riba M (2012) Patterns of genetic variability and habitat occupancy in Crepis triasii (Asteraceae) at different spatial scales: insights on evolutionary processes leading to diversification in continental islands. Annals of Botany 109: 429-441.

Patterns of genetic variability and habitat occupancy in Crepis triasii (Asteraceae) at different spatial scales: Insights on evolutionary processes leading to diversification in continental islands

Mayol M., Palau C., Rosselló J.A., González-Marítnez S.C., Molins A., Riba M. (2012) Patterns of genetic variability and habitat occupancy in Crepis triasii (Asteraceae) at different spatial scales: Insights on evolutionary processes leading to diversification in continental islands. Annals of Botany. 109: 429-441.
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Doi: 10.1093/aob/mcr298

Resum:

Background and Aims Archipelagos are unique systems for studying evolutionary processes promoting diversification and speciation. The islands of the Mediterranean basin are major areas of plant richness, including a high proportion of narrow endemics. Many endemic plants are currently found in rocky habitats, showing varying patterns of habitat occupancy at different spatial scales throughout their range. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of varying patterns of population distribution on genetic diversity and structure to shed light on demographic and evolutionary processes leading to population diversification in Crepis triasii, an endemic plant from the eastern Balearic Islands. Methods Using allozyme and chloroplast markers, we related patterns of genetic structure and diversity to those of habitat occupancy at a regional (between islands and among populations within islands) and landscape (population size and connectivity) scale. Key Results Genetic diversity was highly structured both at the regional and at the landscape level, and was positively correlated with population connectivity in the landscape. Populations located in small isolated mountains and coastal areas, with restricted patterns of regional occupancy, were genetically less diverse and much more differentiated. In addition, more isolated populations had stronger fine-scale genetic structure than well-connected ones. Changes in habitat availability and quality arising from marine transgressions during the Quaternary, as well as progressive fragmentation associated with the aridification of the climate since the last glaciation, are the most plausible factors leading to the observed patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of gene flow in preventing genetic erosion and maintaining the evolutionary potential of populations. They also agree with recent studies highlighting the importance of restricted gene flow and genetic drift as drivers of plant evolution in Mediterranean continental islands. © 2011 The Author.

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Recent population decline and selection shape diversity of taxol-related genes.

Burgarella C, Navascués M, Zabal-Aguirre M, Berganzo E, Riba M, Mayol M, Vendramin GG, González-Martínez SC (2012) Recent population decline and selection shape diversity of taxol-related genes. Molecular Ecology 21: 3006-3021.