Farre-Armengol G., Filella I., Llusia J., Niinemets U., Penuelas J. (2014) Changes in floral bouquets from compound-specific responses to increasing temperatures. Global Change Biology. : 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/gcb.12628
We addressed the potential effects of changes in ambient temperature on the profiles of volatile emissions from flowers and tested whether warming could induce significant quantitative and qualitative changes in floral emissions, which would potentially interfere with plant-pollinator chemical communication. We measured the temperature responses of floral emissions of various common species of Mediterranean plants using dynamic headspace sampling and used GC-MS to identify and quantify the emitted terpenes. Floral emissions increased with temperature to an optimum and thereafter decreased. The responses to temperature modeled here predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emission of 0.03-1.4-fold, depending on the species, in response to an increase of 1 °C in the mean global ambient temperature. Under the warmest projections that predict a maximum increase of 5 °C in the mean temperature of Mediterranean climates in the Northern Hemisphere by the end of the century, our models predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emissions of 0.34-9.1-fold, depending on the species. The species with the lowest emission rates had the highest relative increases in floral terpene emissions with temperature increases of 1-5 °C. The response of floral emissions to temperature differed among species and among different compounds within the species. Warming not only increased the rates of total emissions, but also changed the ratios among compounds that constituted the floral scents, i.e. increased the signal for pollinators, but also importantly altered the signal fidelity and probability of identification by pollinators, especially for specialists with a strong reliance on species-specific floral blends. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Garbulsky M.F., Filella I., Verger A., Penuelas J. (2014) Photosynthetic light use efficiency from satellite sensors: From global to Mediterranean vegetation. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 103: 3-11.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2013.10.009
Recent advances in remote-sensing techniques for light use efficiency (LUE) are providing new possibilities for monitoring carbon uptake by terrestrial vegetation (gross primary production, GPP), in particular for Mediterranean vegetation types. This article reviews the state of the art of two of the most promising approaches for remotely estimating LUE: the use of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the exploitation of the passive chlorophyll fluorescence signal. The theoretical and technical issues that remain before these methods can be implemented for the operational global production of LUE from forthcoming hyperspectral satellite data are identified for future research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Greenberg J.P., Penuelas J., Guenther A., Seco R., Turnipseed A., Jiang X., Filella I., Estiarte M., Sardans J., Ogaya R., Llusia J., Rapparini F. (2014) A tethered-balloon PTRMS sampling approach for surveying of landscape-scale biogenic VOC fluxes. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 7: 2263-2271.EnllaçDoi: 10.5194/amt-7-2263-2014
Landscape-scale fluxes of biogenic gases were surveyed by deploying a 100 m Teflon tube attached to a tethered balloon as a sampling inlet for a fast-response proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTRMS). Along with meteorological instruments deployed on the tethered balloon and a 3 m tripod and outputs from a regional weather model, these observations were used to estimate landscape-scale biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes with two micrometeorological techniques: mixed layer variance and surface layer gradients. This highly mobile sampling system was deployed at four field sites near Barcelona to estimate landscape-scale biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission factors in a relatively short period (3 weeks). The two micrometeorological techniques were compared with emissions predicted with a biogenic emission model using site-specific emission factors and land-cover characteristics for all four sites. The methods agreed within the uncertainty of the techniques in most cases, even though the locations had considerable heterogeneity in species distribution and complex terrain. Considering the wide range in reported BVOC emission factors for individual vegetation species (more than an order of magnitude), this temporally short and inexpensive flux estimation technique may be useful for constraining BVOC emission factors used as model inputs. © 2014 Author(s).
Kefauver S.C., Filella I., Penuelas J. (2014) Remote sensing of atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) via satellite-based formaldehyde vertical column assessments. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 35: 7519-7542.EnllaçDoi: 10.1080/01431161.2014.968690
Global vegetation is intrinsically linked to atmospheric chemistry and climate, and better understanding vegetation–atmosphere interactions can allow scientists to not only predict future change patterns, but also to suggest future policies and adaptations to mediate vegetation feedbacks with atmospheric chemistry and climate. Improving global and regional estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions is of great interest for their biological and environmental effects and possible positive and negative feedbacks related to climate change and other vectors of global change. Multiple studies indicate that BVOCs are on the rise, and with near 20 years of global remote sensing of formaldehyde (HCHO), the immediate and dominant BVOC atmospheric oxidation product, the accurate and quantitative linkage of BVOCs with plant ecology, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change is of increasing relevance. The remote sensing of BVOCs, via HCHO in a three step process, suffers from an additive modelling error, but improvements in each of the steps have reduced this error by over a multiplication factor improvement compared to estimates without remote sensing. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurement of the HCHO slant columns from spectral absorption properties has been adapted to include the correction of numerous spectral artefacts and intricately refined for each of a series of sensors of increasing spectral and spatial resolution. Conversion of HCHO slant to HCHO vertical columns using air mass factors (AMFs) has been improved with the launch of new sensors and the incorporation of radiative transfer and chemical transport models (CTM). The critical process of linking HCHO to BVOC emissions and filtering non-biogenic emissions to explicitly quantify biogenic emissions has also greatly improved. This critical last step in down-scaling from global satellite coverage to local biogenic emissions now benefits from the increasing precision and near-explicitness of available CTMs as well as the increasing availability of global remote-sensing data sets needed to proportionally assign the HCHO column to different related biogenic (global plant functional type and land cover classifications), atmospheric (dust, aerosols, clouds, other trace gases), climate (temperature, wind, precipitation), and anthropogenic (fire, biomass burning) factors.
Morfopoulos C., Sperlich D., Penuelas J., Filella I., Llusia J., Medlyn B.E., Niinemets U., Possell M., Sun Z., Prentice I.C. (2014) A model of plant isoprene emission based on available reducing power captures responses to atmospheric CO2. New Phytologist. 203: 125-139.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/nph.12770
Summary: We present a unifying model for isoprene emission by photosynthesizing leaves based on the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis depends on a balance between the supply of photosynthetic reducing power and the demands of carbon fixation. We compared the predictions from our model, as well as from two other widely used models, with measurements of isoprene emission from leaves of Populus nigra and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) in response to changes in leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) under diverse ambient CO2 concentrations (Ca). Our model reproduces the observed changes in isoprene emissions with Ci and PPFD, and also reproduces the tendency for the fraction of fixed carbon allocated to isoprene to increase with increasing PPFD. It also provides a simple mechanism for the previously unexplained decrease in the quantum efficiency of isoprene emission with increasing Ca. Experimental and modelled results support our hypothesis. Our model can reproduce the key features of the observations and has the potential to improve process-based modelling of isoprene emissions by land vegetation at the ecosystem and global scales. © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.
Peñuelas J., Farré-Armengol G., Llusia J., Gargallo-Garriga A., Rico L., Sardans J., Terradas J., Filella I. (2014) Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions. Scientific Reports. 4: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1038/srep06727
The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting β-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.
Sardans J., Gargallo-Garriga A., Perez-Trujillo M., Parella T.J., Seco R., Filella I., Penuelas J. (2014) Metabolic responses of Quercus ilex seedlings to wounding analysed with nuclear magnetic resonance profiling. Plant Biology. 16: 395-403.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/plb.12032
Plants defend themselves against herbivory at several levels. One of these is the synthesis of inducible chemical defences. Using NMR metabolomic techniques, we studied the metabolic changes of plant leaves after a wounding treatment simulating herbivore attack in the Mediterranean sclerophyllous tree Quercus ilex. First, an increase in glucose content was observed in wounded plants. There was also an increase in the content of C-rich secondary metabolites such as quinic acid and quercitol, both related to the shikimic acid pathway and linked to defence against biotic stress. There was also a shift in N-storing amino acids, from leucine and isoleucine to asparagine and choline. The observed higher content of asparagine is related to the higher content of choline through serine that was proved to be the precursor of choline. Choline is a general anti-herbivore and pathogen deterrent. The study shows the rapid metabolic response of Q. ilex in defending its leaves, based on a rapid increase in the production of quinic acid, quercitol and choline. The results also confirm the suitability of 1H NMR-based metabolomic profiling studies to detect global metabolome shifts after wounding stress in tree leaves, and therefore its suitability in ecometabolomic studies. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
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