Sgolastra F., Bosch J., Molowny-Horas R., Maini S., Kemp W.P. (2010) Effect of temperature regime on diapause intensity in an adult-wintering Hymenopteran with obligate diapause. Journal of Insect Physiology. 56: 185-194.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2009.10.001
Osmia lignaria is a solitary bee that over-winters as a fully eclosed, cocooned, unfed adult. Our objective is to understand the effect of wintering temperature on diapause maintenance and termination in this species. We measure respiration rates and weight loss in individuals exposed to various wintering temperatures (0, 4, 7, 22 °C, outdoors) and durations (28, 84, 140, 196, 252 days). We use time to emerge and respiration response (respiration rate measured at 22 °C) as indicators of diapause intensity. Adults spontaneously lower their respiration rates to ∼0.1 ml/g h within 1 month after adult eclosion, indicating obligatory diapause. Non-wintered individuals maintain low respiration rates, but lose weight rapidly and die by mid-winter. In wintered adults, two phases can be distinguished. First, respiration response undergoes a rapid increase and then reaches a plateau. This phase is similar in bees wintered at 0, 4 and 7 °C. In the second phase, respiration response undergoes an exponential increase, which is more pronounced at the warmer temperatures. Composite exponential functions provide a good fit to the observed respiration patterns. Adults whose respiration response has reached 0.45 ml/g h emerge promptly when exposed to 20 °C, indicating diapause completion. Individuals wintered for short periods do not reach such respiration levels. When exposed to 20 °C these individuals lower their metabolic rate, and their emergence time is extended. The relationship between respiration rates and emergence time follows a negative exponential function. We propose two alternative models of diapause termination to interpret these results. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
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