Survival vs. growth trade-off in early recruitment challenges global warming impacts on Mediterranean mountain trees

(2015) Survival vs. growth trade-off in early recruitment challenges global warming impacts on Mediterranean mountain trees. . : -.
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Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2015.06.004

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Increased sensitivity to climate change in disturbed ecosystems

Kroel-Dulay G., Ransijn J., Schmidt I.K., Beier C., De Angelis P., De Dato G., Dukes J.S., Emmett B., Estiarte M., Garadnai J., Kongstad J., Kovacs-Lang E., Larsen K.S., Liberati D., Ogaya R., Riis-Nielsen T., Smith A.R., Sowerby A., Tietema A., Penuelas J. (2015) Increased sensitivity to climate change in disturbed ecosystems. Nature Communications. 6: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/ncomms7682

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Human domination of the biosphere includes changes to disturbance regimes, which push many ecosystems towards early-successional states. Ecological theory predicts that early-successional ecosystems are more sensitive to perturbations than mature systems, but little evidence supports this relationship for the perturbation of climate change. Here we show that vegetation (abundance, species richness and species composition) across seven European shrublands is quite resistant to moderate experimental warming and drought, and responsiveness is associated with the dynamic state of the ecosystem, with recently disturbed sites responding to treatments. Furthermore, most of these responses are not rapid (2-5 years) but emerge over a longer term (7-14 years). These results suggest that successional state influences the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate change, and that ecosystems recovering from disturbances may be sensitive to even modest climatic changes. A research bias towards undisturbed ecosystems might thus lead to an underestimation of the impacts of climate change. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species

Liu D., Ogaya R., Barbeta A., Yang X., Peñuelas J. (2015) Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species. Global Change Biology. 21: 4196-4209.
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Doi: 10.1111/gcb.13029

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Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition, dominance, and stand density) may be reordered when a certain drought threshold is reached. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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Satellite data as indicators of tree biomass growth and forest dieback in a Mediterranean holm oak forest

Ogaya R., Barbeta A., Basnou C., Penuelas J. (2015) Satellite data as indicators of tree biomass growth and forest dieback in a Mediterranean holm oak forest. Annals of Forest Science. 72: 135-144.
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Doi: 10.1007/s13595-014-0408-y

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• Context: In the framework of climate change, decreased tree growth and enhanced mortality induced by hot and dry conditions are increasing in many forests around the world, and particularly in Mediterranean forests.• Aims: Our aim was to estimate tree growth and mortality in a Mediterranean holm oak forest, using remote sensing data from MODIS.• Methods: We monitored annual increases of aboveground biomass by measuring tree basal area, and we determined tree mortality by counting dead stems. We analyzed the relationships between forest growth and mortality with mean annual values of some MODIS products and meteorological data.• Results: Mortality and increases of aboveground biomass correlated well with precipitation, September standardized precipitation/evapotranspiration indices (SPEI), and some MODIS products such as NDVI and enhanced vegetation index EVI. Other MODIS products such as gross primary production (GPP) and net photosynthesis, however, showed no clear relationship with tree mortality or measured increases of biomass.• Conclusion: The MODIS products as proxies of ecosystemic productivity (gross primary productivity, net photosynthesis) were weakly correlated with biomass increase, and did not reflect the mortality following the drought of autumn 2011. Nevertheless, NDVI and EVI were efficient indicators of forest productivity and dieback. © 2014, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.

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