Garcia-Gomez H., Garrido J.L., Vivanco M.G., Lassaletta L., Rabago I., Avila A., Tsyro S., Sanchez G., Gonzalez Ortiz A., Gonzalez-Fernandez I., Alonso R. (2014) Nitrogen deposition in Spain: Modeled patterns and threatened habitats within the Natura 2000 network. Science of the Total Environment. 485-486: 450-460.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.112
The Mediterranean Basin presents an extraordinary biological richness but very little information is available on the threat that air pollution, and in particular reactive nitrogen (N), can pose to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study represents the first approach to assess the risk of N enrichment effects on Spanish ecosystems. The suitability of EMEP and CHIMERE air quality model systems as tools to identify those areas where effects of atmospheric N deposition could be occurring was tested. For this analysis, wet deposition of NO3- and NH4+ estimated with EMEP and CHIMERE model systems were compared with measured data for the period 2005-2008 obtained from different monitoring networks in Spain. Wet N deposition was acceptably predicted by both models, showing better results for oxidized than for reduced nitrogen, particularly when using CHIMERE. Both models estimated higher wet deposition values in northern and northeastern Spain, and decreasing along a NE-SW axis. Total (wet+dry) nitrogen deposition in 2008 reached maxima values of 19.4 and 23.0kgNha-1year-1 using EMEP and CHIMERE models respectively. Total N deposition was used to estimate the exceedance of N empirical critical loads in the Natura 2000 network. Grassland habitats proved to be the most threatened group, particularly in the northern alpine area, pointing out that biodiversity conservation in these protected areas could be endangered by N deposition. Other valuable mountain ecosystems can be also threatened, indicating the need to extend atmospheric deposition monitoring networks to higher altitudes in Spain. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Garcia-Gomez H., Garrido J.L., Vivanco M.G., Lassaletta L., Rabago I., Avila A., Tsyro S., Sanchez G., Gonzalez Ortiz A., Gonzalez-Fernandez I., Alonso R. (2014) Corrigendum to “Nitrogen deposition in Spain: Modeled patterns and threatened habitats within the Natura 2000 network“. Science of the Total Environment. : 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.001
[No abstract available]
Izquierdo R., Alarcon M., Aguillaume L., Avila A. (2014) Effects of teleconnection patterns on the atmospheric routes, precipitation and deposition amounts in the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Environment. 89: 482-490.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.02.057
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has been identified as one of the atmospheric patterns which mostly influence the temporal evolution of precipitation and temperature in the Mediterranean area. Recently, the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) has also been proposed to describe the precipitation variability in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. This paper examines whether the chemical signature and/or the chemical deposition amounts recorded over NE Iberian Peninsula are influenced by these climatic variability patterns. Results show a more relevant role of the WeMO compared to NAO in the deposition of either marine (Cl-, Na+, Mg2+) or anthropogenic pollutants (H+, NH4 +, NO3 - and SO4 2-). A cluster classification of provenances indicated that in winter (December to March) fast Atlantic air flows correspond to positive WeMO indices, while negative WeMOi are associated to Northeastern and Southwestern circulations. The negative phase of WeMO causes the entry of air masses from the Mediterranean into the Iberian Peninsula, that are enriched with marine ions and ions of anthropogenic origin (NH4 +, NO3 - and SO4 2-). For these later, this suggests the advection over the Mediterranean of polluted air masses from southern Europe and the scavenging and deposition of this pollution by precipitation during the WeMO negative phases. This will carry transboundary pollutants to the NE Iberian Peninsula. However, local pollutants may also contribute, as precipitation events from the Mediterranean and the Atlantic (associated to both WeMO phases) may incorporate emissions that accumulate locally during the winter anticyclonic episodes typical of the region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Longo A.F., Ingall E.D., Diaz J.M., Oakes M., King L.E., Nenes A., Mihalopoulos N., Violaki K., Avila A., Benitez-Nelson C.R., Brandes J., McNulty I., Vine D.J. (2014) P-NEXFS analysis of aerosol phosphorus delivered to the Mediterranean Sea. Geophysical Research Letters. 41: 4043-4049.EnllaçDoi: 10.1002/2014GL060555
Biological productivity in many ocean regions is controlled by the availability of the nutrient phosphorus. In the Mediterranean Sea, aerosol deposition is a key source of phosphorus and understanding its composition is critical for determining its potential bioavailability. Aerosol phosphorus was investigated in European and North African air masses using phosphorus near-edge X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (P-NEXFS). These air masses are the main source of aerosol deposition to the Mediterranean Sea. We show that European aerosols are a significant source of soluble phosphorus to the Mediterranean Sea. European aerosols deliver on average 3.5 times more soluble phosphorus than North African aerosols and furthermore are dominated by organic phosphorus compounds. The ultimate source of organic phosphorus does not stem from common primary emission sources. Rather, phosphorus associated with bacteria best explains the presence of organic phosphorus in Mediterranean aerosols. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
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