Automated measurements of greenhouse gases fluxes from tree stems and soils: magnitudes, patterns and drivers

Barba J., Poyatos R., Vargas R. (2019) Automated measurements of greenhouse gases fluxes from tree stems and soils: magnitudes, patterns and drivers. Scientific Reports. 9: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-39663-8

Resum:

Tree stems exchange CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O with the atmosphere but the magnitudes, patterns and drivers of these greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes remain poorly understood. Our understanding mainly comes from static-manual measurements, which provide limited information on the temporal variability and magnitude of these fluxes. We measured hourly CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes at two stem heights and adjacent soils within an upland temperate forest. We analyzed diurnal and seasonal variability of fluxes and biophysical drivers (i.e., temperature, soil moisture, sap flux). Tree stems were a net source of CO 2 (3.80 ± 0.18 µmol m −2 s −1 ; mean ± 95% CI) and CH 4 (0.37 ± 0.18 nmol m −2 s −1 ), but a sink for N 2 O (−0.016 ± 0.008 nmol m −2 s −1 ). Time series analysis showed diurnal temporal correlations between these gases with temperature or sap flux for certain days. CO 2 and CH 4 showed a clear seasonal pattern explained by temperature, soil water content and sap flux. Relationships between stem, soil fluxes and their drivers suggest that CH 4 for stem emissions could be partially produced belowground. High-frequency measurements demonstrate that: a) tree stems exchange GHGs with the atmosphere at multiple time scales; and b) are needed to better estimate fluxes magnitudes and understand underlying mechanisms of GHG stem emissions. © 2019, The Author(s).

Llegeix més

Multi-temporal influence of vegetation on soil respiration in a droughtaffected forest

Barba, J., Lloret, F., Poyatos, R., Molowny-Horas, R., Yuste, J.C. (2018) Multi-temporal influence of vegetation on soil respiration in a droughtaffected forest. IForest. 11: 189-198.
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Doi: 10.3832/ifor2448-011

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Strong resilience of soil respiration components to drought-induced die-off resulting in forest secondary succession

Barba J., Curiel Yuste J., Poyatos R., Janssens I.A., Lloret F. (2016) Strong resilience of soil respiration components to drought-induced die-off resulting in forest secondary succession. Oecologia. 182: 27-41.
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Doi: 10.1007/s00442-016-3567-8

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How forests cope with drought-induced perturbations and how the dependence of soil respiration on environmental and biological drivers is affected in a warming and drying context are becoming key questions. The aims of this study were to determine whether drought-induced die-off and forest succession were reflected in soil respiration and its components and to determine the influence of climate on the soil respiration components. We used the mesh exclusion method to study seasonal variations in soil respiration (RS) and its components: heterotrophic (RH) and autotrophic (RA) [further split into fine root (RR) and mycorrhizal respiration (RM)] in a mixed Mediterranean forest where Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is undergoing a drought-induced die-off and is being replaced by holm oak (Quercus ilex L.). Drought-induced pine die-off was not reflected in RS nor in its components, which denotes a high functional resilience of the plant and soil system to pine die-off. However, the succession from Scots pine to holm oak resulted in a reduction of RH and thus in an important decrease of total respiration (RS was 36 % lower in holm oaks than in non-defoliated pines). Furthermore, RS and all its components were strongly regulated by soil water content-and-temperature interaction. Since Scots pine die-off and Quercus species colonization seems to be widely occurring at the driest limit of the Scots pine distribution, the functional resilience of the soil system over die-off and the decrease of RS from Scots pine to holm oak could have direct consequences for the C balance of these ecosystems. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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Time variable hydraulic parameters improve the performance of a mechanistic stand transpiration model. A case study of Mediterranean Scots pine sap flow data assimilation

Sus O., Poyatos R., Barba J., Carvalhais N., Llorens P., Williams M., Vilalta J.M. (2014) Time variable hydraulic parameters improve the performance of a mechanistic stand transpiration model. A case study of Mediterranean Scots pine sap flow data assimilation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 198: 168-180.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.08.009

Resum:

Tree transpiration is regulated by short-term physiological adjustments and long-term shifts in hydraulic architecture in response to fluctuating evaporative demand and water supply. Despite the tight interdependence of plant water loss and carbon uptake and its crucial implications for plant growth and survival under drought conditions, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely represented in most state-of-the-art mechanistic models. Important process information is resolved in tree transpiration (sap flow) data, which are the measurable outcome of water transport through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum under variable environmental conditions. Here, we assimilated sap flow data measured in two Scots pine stands from climatically contrasting sites - one of which experiencing a strong drought during the study period - in NE Spain into a process-based ecophysiological model (SPA) using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) in order to: (1) distinguish differences in hydraulic characteristics between sites and between healthy and defoliated individuals within a site; (2) identify possible structural model deficiencies, particularly regarding temporal changes in plant hydraulic conductance which the model assumes constant; and (3) derive implications for gross photosynthesis and carbon cycling. In terms of stomatal control, the assimilation of sap flow data into SPA showed a more conservative water use under dry conditions. Time-varying plant conductivity substantially improved model performance under severe drought, while seasonally varying capacitance and stomatal efficiency only resulted in marginal improvements. Not accounting for this seasonal variability would translate into a 30-60% overestimation of modelled GPP during drought. Our results suggest that an explicit representation of mechanisms leading to temporal changes in hydraulic conductivity (i.e., xylem embolism) is required for models to reproduce tree functioning under extreme drought.

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Las poblaciones ibéricas de pino albar ante el cambio climático: con la muerte en los talones.

Martínez-Vilalta J, Aguadé D, Banqué M, Barba J, Curiel Yuste J, Galiano L, Garcia N, Gómez M, Heres; AM, López BC, Lloret F, Poyatos R, Retana J, Sus O, Vayreda J, Vilà-Cabrera A (2012) Las poblaciones ibéricas de pino albar ante el cambio climático: con la muerte en los talones. Ecosistemas 21: 15-21.

Las poblaciones ibéricas de pino albar ante el cambio climático: con la muerte en los talones.

Martínez-Vilalta J, Aguadé D, Banqué M, Barba J, Yuste JC, Galiano L, Garcia N, Gómez M, Hereş AM, López BC, Lloret F, Poyatos R, Retana J, Sus O, Vayreda J, Vilà-Cabrera A (2012) Las poblaciones ibéricas de pino albar ante el cambio climático: con la muerte en los talones. Revista Ecosistemas 21: 15–21.

Canvis recents en els fluxos d’aigua i carboni a les pinedes de pi roig del bosc de Poblet: implicacions en un escenari de canvi climàtic.

Poyatos R, Martínez-Vilalta J, Poyatos R, Martínez-Vilalta J, Curiel J, Barba J, ,Aguadé D, Mencuccini M,Lloret F (2010) Canvis recents en els fluxos d’aigua i carboni a les pinedes de pi roig del bosc de Poblet: implicacions en un escenari de canvi climàtic. III Jornades sobre el bosc de Poblet i les muntanyes de Prades (en prensa).