BioTIME: A database of biodiversity time series for the Anthropocene

Dornelas M., Antão L.H., Moyes F., Bates A.E., Magurran A.E., Adam D., Akhmetzhanova A.A., Appeltans W., Arcos J.M., Arnold H., Ayyappan N., Badihi G., Baird A.H., Barbosa M., Barreto T.E., Bässler C., Bellgrove A., Belmaker J., Benedetti-Cecchi L., Bett B.J., Bjorkman A.D., Błażewicz M., Blowes S.A., Bloch C.P., Bonebrake T.C., Boyd S., Bradford M., Brooks A.J., Brown J.H., Bruelheide H., Budy P., Carvalho F., Castañeda-Moya E., Chen C.A., Chamblee J.F., Chase T.J., Siegwart Collier L., Collinge S.K., Condit R., Cooper E.J., Cornelissen J.H.C., Cotano U., Kyle Crow S., Damasceno G., Davies C.H., Davis R.A., Day F.P., Degraer S., Doherty T.S., Dunn T.E., Durigan G., Duffy J.E., Edelist D., Edgar G.J., Elahi R., Elmendorf S.C., Enemar A., Ernest S.K.M., Escribano R., Estiarte M., Evans B.S., Fan T.-Y., Turini Farah F., Loureiro Fernandes L., Farneda F.Z., Fidelis A., Fitt R., Fosaa A.M., Daher Correa Franco G.A., Frank G.E., Fraser W.R., García H., Cazzolla Gatti R., Givan O., Gorgone-Barbosa E., Gould W.A., Gries C., Grossman G.D., Gutierréz J.R., Hale S., Harmon M.E., Harte J., Haskins G., Henshaw D.L., Hermanutz L., Hidalgo P., Higuchi P., Hoey A., Van Hoey G., Hofgaard A., Holeck K., Hollister R.D., Holmes R., Hoogenboom M., Hsieh C.-H., Hubbell S.P., Huettmann F., Huffard C.L., Hurlbert A.H., Macedo Ivanauskas N., Janík D., Jandt U., Jażdżewska A., Johannessen T., Johnstone J., Jones J., Jones F.A.M., Kang J., Kartawijaya T., Keeley E.C., Kelt D.A., Kinnear R., Klanderud K., Knutsen H., Koenig C.C., Kortz A.R., Král K., Kuhnz L.A., Kuo C.-Y., Kushner D.J., Laguionie-Marchais C., Lancaster L.T., Min Lee C., Lefcheck J.S., Lévesque E., Lightfoot D., Lloret F., Lloyd J.D., López-Baucells A., Louzao M., Madin J.S., Magnússon B., Malamud S., Matthews I., McFarland K.P., McGill B., McKnight D., McLarney W.O., Meador J., Meserve P.L., Metcalfe D.J., Meyer C.F.J., Michelsen A., Milchakova N., Moens T., Moland E., Moore J., Mathias Moreira C., Müller J., Murphy G., Myers-Smith I.H., Myster R.W., Naumov A., Neat F., Nelson J.A., Paul Nelson M., Newton S.F., Norden N., Oliver J.C., Olsen E.M., Onipchenko V.G., Pabis K., Pabst R.J., Paquette A., Pardede S., Paterson D.M., Pélissier R., Peñuelas J., Pérez-Matus A., Pizarro O., Pomati F., Post E., Prins H.H.T., Priscu J.C., Provoost P., Prudic K.L., Pulliainen E., Ramesh B.R., Mendivil Ramos O., Rassweiler A., Rebelo J.E., Reed D.C., Reich P.B., Remillard S.M., Richardson A.J., Richardson J.P., van Rijn I., Rocha R., Rivera-Monroy V.H., Rixen C., Robinson K.P., Ribeiro Rodrigues R., de Cerqueira Rossa-Feres D., Rudstam L., Ruhl H., Ruz C.S., Sampaio E.M., Rybicki N., Rypel A., Sal S., Salgado B., Santos F.A.M., Savassi-Coutinho A.P., Scanga S., Schmidt J., Schooley R., Setiawan F., Shao K.-T., Shaver G.R., Sherman S., Sherry T.W., Siciński J., Sievers C., da Silva A.C., Rodrigues da Silva F., Silveira F.L., Slingsby J., Smart T., Snell S.J., Soudzilovskaia N.A., Souza G.B.G., Maluf Souza F., Castro Souza V., Stallings C.D., Stanforth R., Stanley E.H., Mauro Sterza J., Stevens M., Stuart-Smith R., Rondon Suarez Y., Supp S., Yoshio Tamashiro J., Tarigan S., Thiede G.P., Thorn S., Tolvanen A., Teresa Zugliani Toniato M., Totland Ø., Twilley R.R., Vaitkus G., Valdivia N., Vallejo M.I., Valone T.J., Van Colen C., Vanaverbeke J., Venturoli F., Verheye H.M., Vianna M., Vieira R.P., Vrška T., Quang Vu C., Van Vu L., Waide R.B., Waldock C., Watts D., Webb S., Wesołowski T., White E.P., Widdicombe C.E., Wilgers D., Williams R., Williams S.B., Williamson M., Willig M.R., Willis T.J., Wipf S., Woods K.D., Woehler E.J., Zawada K., Zettler M.L. (2018) BioTIME: A database of biodiversity time series for the Anthropocene. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 27: 760-786.
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Doi: 10.1111/geb.12729

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Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time series. Our goal is to accelerate and facilitate quantitative analysis of temporal patterns of biodiversity in the Anthropocene. Main types of variables included: The database contains 8,777,413 species abundance records, from assemblages consistently sampled for a minimum of 2 years, which need not necessarily be consecutive. In addition, the database contains metadata relating to sampling methodology and contextual information about each record. Spatial location and grain: BioTIME is a global database of 547,161 unique sampling locations spanning the marine, freshwater and terrestrial realms. Grain size varies across datasets from 0.0000000158 km2 (158 cm2) to 100 km2 (1,000,000,000,000 cm2). Time period and grain: BioTIME records span from 1874 to 2016. The minimal temporal grain across all datasets in BioTIME is a year. Major taxa and level of measurement: BioTIME includes data from 44,440 species across the plant and animal kingdoms, ranging from plants, plankton and terrestrial invertebrates to small and large vertebrates. Software format:.csv and.SQL. © 2018 The Authors. Global Ecology and Biogeography Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: Beyond drought effects

Doblas-Miranda, E., Alonso, R., Arnan, X., Bermejo, V., Brotons, L., de las Heras, J., Estiarte, M., Hódar, J.A., Llorens, P., Lloret, F., López-Serrano, F.R., Martínez-Vilalta, J., Moya, D., Peñuelas, J., Pino, J., Rodrigo, A., Roura-Pascual, N., Valladares, F., Vilà, M., Zamora, R., Retana, J. (2017) A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: Beyond drought effects. Global and Planetary Change. 148: 42-54.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.11.012

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Inter-annual variability of seed rain and seedling establishment of two woody Mediterranean species under field-induced drought and warming

del Cacho M., Estiarte M., Peñuelas J., Lloret F. (2013) Inter-annual variability of seed rain and seedling establishment of two woody Mediterranean species under field-induced drought and warming. Population Ecology. 55: 277-289.
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Doi: 10.1007/s10144-013-0365-6

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We aimed to assess the impact of warmer and drier climate change conditions on the seed rain and seedling establishment of Globularia alypum L. and Erica multiflora L., two dominant species in Western coastal Mediterranean shrublands. We performed a non-intrusive field experiment in which we increased the night-time temperatures and excluded spring and autumn rainfall. We monitored the seed rain over 5 years and the seedling recruitment over 9 years on these experimental plots. Seed rain of E. multiflora was enhanced by warming treatment in relation to control, and higher annual rainfall, while seed rain of G. alypum was increased by drought treatment in relation to control, dry years and higher minimum annual temperature. Annual rainfall enhanced the seedling emergence of both species, which also positively correlated with annual mean temperatures. Drought treatment significantly decreased seedling emergence for both species, which was higher in open areas than below vegetation cover. The seedling survival of both species diminished at closer distances to competing neighbours, and in G. alypum seedling survival was higher with lower annual mean temperatures and higher annual rainfall, but also in drought treatment, which have experienced vegetation cover decline. The study confirms that the increasing aridity in Mediterranean ecosystems would constrain the early stages of development in typical co-occurring shrubs. However, there are contrasting responses to climatic conditions between species recruitment, which might favour changes in vegetation through modification of species relative abundance. © 2013 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer Japan.

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Effects of climate change on leaf litter decomposition across post-fire plant regenerative groups

Saura-Mas S., Estiarte M., Peñuelas J., Lloret F. (2012) Effects of climate change on leaf litter decomposition across post-fire plant regenerative groups. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 77: 274-282.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2011.11.014

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Decomposition is a determining factor for the functioning of ecosystems because litter dynamics (litter fall and litter decomposition) constitute a key process in the regulation of the recycling of carbon and nutrients. We studied the litter decomposition properties of a set of 19 Mediterranean-basin woody species with different post-fire regenerative strategies (resprouters and non-resprouters), under experimental climate manipulation (simulating warming and drought) over a 2-year period. We show that climate change modifies litter decomposition of these Mediterranean woody species as litter contributions to the soil (g/year) were lower under drought experimental conditions. Species with different post-fire regeneration performance showed different leaf decomposition patterns, though these patterns were influenced by the taxonomical affiliation of the species. As expected, the mass loss of the non-resprouter litter, after 2 years, was higher than in resprouters. Non-resprouters showed higher nutrient concentration per mass of leaf litter after 2 years of experiment than resprouters, possibly because they have lost more C-rich biomass, allowing high nutrients concentration in the remaining litter. That would apply particularly to P as litter N:P ratio was lower in non-resprouters than in resprouters. This study suggests that, in Mediterranean ecosystems, nutrients' return from leaf litter to the soil will be slower under the projected future drier conditions. Furthermore, changes in fire regimes that lead to modifications in the abundance of post-fire regenerative groups are likely to affect ecosystem's functional properties. Thus, if new fire regimes enhance non-resprouters' abundance, we can expect a greater return of organic matter contributions to the soil and a lower litter N:P. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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Effect of experimentally induced climate change on the seed bank of a Mediterranean shrubland

del Cacho M., Saura-Mas S., Estiarte M., Peñuelas J., Lloret F. (2012) Effect of experimentally induced climate change on the seed bank of a Mediterranean shrubland. Journal of Vegetation Science. 23: 280-291.
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Doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2011.01345.x

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Questions: We studied the soil seed bank under field-simulated climate change conditions and addressed the following questions: Is the effect of climate change on seed banks more evident in areas without vegetation? Are short-lived species more sensitive to this directional climate change than long-lived species? Location: A Mediterranean shrubland in the Garraf Natural Park, NE Spain. Methods: Directional climate change was induced through manipulating temperature and rainfall over almost 9 yr. Soil seed banks were assessed using the seedling emergence method. Results: Under drought and warming treatments, the total number of germinating seeds decreased by 47% and 43%, respectively, in non-vegetated areas. In contrast, no effect was found for areas with vegetation cover. Reduced seed bank density was particularly pronounced for short-lived species (therophytes plus hemicryptophytes), which dropped by 60% and 69%, respectively, in the drought and warming treatments in open areas, while no significant changes were observed under vegetation. In non-vegetated areas, the reduction in seed bank density was similar in all species. In contrast, a shift in the relative abundance of seed bank species was apparent under shrub canopies. Conclusions: As experimental climatic manipulations of Mediterranean shrublands demonstrate a trend towards an increase in open areas under drought conditions, a decrease in the seed bank of short-lived species in these areas may potentially result in a positive feedback that would accentuate the loss of vegetation cover under predicted future climate conditions. © 2011 International Association for Vegetation Science.

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Llebot E. (ed). Impactes, vulnerabilitat i retroalimentacions climàtiques als ecosistemes terrestres catalans. Segon informe sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya.

Peñuelas J, Filella I, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Llusià J, Sardans J, Jump A, Curiel J, Carnicer J, Rutishauser T, Rico L, Keenan T, Garbulsky M, Coll M, Diaz de Quijano M, Seco R, Rivas-Ubach A, Silva J, Boada M, Stefanescu C, Lloret F, Terradas J (2011) Llebot E. (ed). Impactes, vulnerabilitat i retroalimentacions climàtiques als ecosistemes terrestres catalans. Segon informe sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya. Institut d'Estudis Catalans i Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona, pp. 373-407.

Intégration des effets du changement climatique sur les forêts méditerranéennes : observation, expérimentation, modélisation et gestion p. 351. Introducing the climate change effects on Mediterranean forest ecosystems: observation, experimentation, simul

Peñuelas J, Gracia C, Filella I, Jump A, Carnicer J, Coll M, Lloret F, Curiel J, Estiarte M, Rutishauser T, Ogaya R, LLusiá J, Sardans J (2010) Intégration des effets du changement climatique sur les forêts méditerranéennes : observation, expérimentation, modélisation et gestion p. 351. Introducing the climate change effects on Mediterranean forest ecosystems: observation, experimentation, simul ation and management . Forêt Méditerranéenne XXXI, nº 4 pp. 357. ISSN 0245-484X.

Impactes, vulnerabilitat i retroalimentacions climàtiques als ecosistemes terrestres catalans. A: Llebot E. (ed). Segon informe sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya.

Peñuelas J, Filella I, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Llusià J, Sardans J, Jump A, Curiel J, Carnicer J, Rutishauser T, Rico L, Keenan T, Garbulsky M, Coll M, Díaz de Quijano M, Seco R, Rivas-Ubach A, Silva J, Boada M, Stefanescu C, Lloret F, Terradas J (2010) Impactes, vulnerabilitat i retroalimentacions climàtiques als ecosistemes terrestres catalans. A: Llebot E. (ed). Segon informe sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya. Institut d'Estudis Catalans i Generalitat de Catalunya. pp. 373-407.

Constatacions biològiques del canvi climàtic a Catalunya.

Peñuelas J, Filella I, Estiarte M, Ogaya R, Llusiè J, Sardans J, Jump A, Garbulsky M, Coll M, Díaz de Quijano M, Seco R, Blanch JS, Owen S, Curiel J, Carnicer J, Boada M, Stefanescu C, Lloret F, TerradasJ (2009) Constatacions biològiques del canvi climàtic a Catalunya. A “Aigua i canvi climàtic: Diagnosi dels impactes previstos a Catalunya” Generalitat de Catalunya, Departament de Medi Ambient i Habitatge, Agencia Catalana de l’Aigua, www.gencat.cat/aca .

Plant community changes induced by experimental climate change: Seedling and adult species composition

Lloret F., Peñuelas J., Prieto P., Llorens L., Estiarte M. (2009) Plant community changes induced by experimental climate change: Seedling and adult species composition. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 11: 53-63.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.ppees.2008.09.001

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Experimental manipulation of climate provides a powerful tool for studying plant community dynamics with respect to current climate change. We experimentally investigated the vegetation dynamics of a Mediterranean shrubland under directional climate change by manipulating rain and temperature at stand level throughout 7 years. We focused on seedling establishment in relation to the between-year variability of drought conditions. We also compared seedling dynamics to changes in the established adult vegetation to assess the coupling between both dynamics. We used multivariate techniques (principal response curves (PRC) and redundancy analysis (RDA)) to explore changes in the whole community, and Generalized Linear Model (GLZM) to analyse the influence of drought on the abundance and survival of the most abundant species. Drought treatment induced significant changes in the species composition of the seedlings, via a differential decrease in the seedling density of most species. No species was particularly favoured in terms of seedling abundance under water-deficit conditions. Warming only explained a low percentage of the variability in seedling species composition. The emergence of seedlings in control plots - which may be considered an estimation of the between-year variability in the conditions for seedling establishment - was a better predictor of seedling emergence in experimental plots than climate manipulation treatments. The PRC analysis of the adults showed dynamics that were different from those recorded for seedlings, and it also showed that drought treatment significantly explained species composition. This result is reinforced by the change in the relative abundance of seedling and adults of the more common species in the drought and warming treatments, supporting the hypothesis that climatic directional change heightens discrepancies between recruitment and the adult performance. The RDA analysis applied to species composition at the end of the experiment failed, however, to attain any statistical significance. The warming treatment did not produce any significant shifts in adult vegetation. In conclusion, directional climate change - particularly drier conditions in Mediterranean shrublands - would result in a change in the recruitment of the plant community. This change in seedling recruitment tends to be different from the dynamics of adults, suggesting that potential adult mortality would not be compensated by actual seedling recruitment, thus enhancing shifts in community composition. © 2008 Rübel Foundation, ETH Zürich.

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