Asensio D., Owen S.M., Llusià J., Peñuelas J. (2008) The distribution of volatile isoprenoids in the soil horizons around Pinus halepensis trees. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 40: 2937-2947.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.08.008
We measured the terpene concentration in pentane and water extracts from soil horizons (litter, organic, top and low mineral) and from roots growing in top and low mineral horizons on a distance gradient from Pinus halepensis L. trees growing alone on a grassland. Terpene concentrations in pentane were higher than in water extracts, although β-caryophyllene showed relatively high solubility in water. The litter and roots were important sources of terpenes in soil. Alpha-pinene dominated in roots growing in both "top" (A1) and "low" (B) mineral horizons (123 ± 36 μg g-1 or 14 ± 5 mg m-2) and roots in low mineral horizon (270 ± 91 μg g-1 or 7 ± 2 mg m-2). Beta-caryophyllene dominated in litter (1469 ± 331 μg g-1 or 2004 ± 481 mg m-2). Terpene concentration in soil decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. This is likely to be related to changes in litter and roots type on the distance gradient from pine to grass and herbs. The relative contributions of all compounds, except α-pinene, were similar in the mineral soils and litter. This suggests that litter of P. halepensis is probably the main source of major terpene compounds. However, long-term emissions of α-pinene from P. halepensis roots might also contribute to α-pinene concentrations in rhizosphere soils. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asensio D., Peñuelas J., Prieto P., Estiarte M., Filella I., Llusià J. (2008) Interannual and seasonal changes in the soil exchange rates of monoterpenes and other VOCs in a Mediterranean shrubland. European Journal of Soil Science. 59: 878-891.EnllaçDoi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2008.01057.x
Information about soil VOC inventories and exchange rates in different soils is very scarce. Seasonality of soil VOC exchange rates is also largely unknown, despite the increasing interest in some soil volatile compounds, such as monoterpenes, because of their important role in soil ecology. We aimed to explore and quantify soil VOC exchange rates in a Mediterranean shrubland and their seasonality. Measurements of soil VOC exchange were taken using GC-MS and PTR-MS techniques, together with soil temperature, soil moisture and soil CO2 efflux measurements, during two annual campaigns with contrasting precipitation. Methanol, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, acetone, C3 and C4 carbonyls (such as methyl ethyl ketone), α-pinene and limonene, showed the highest emission rates. Maximum soil monoterpene emission rates were very low (0.003 nmol m-2 s -1) compared with foliar monoterpene emission rates. The emission rates of the other VOCs were also low (maximum 0.8 nmol m-2 s -1) except for methanol (1.2 nmol m-2 s-1). Maximum soil uptake rates for some VOCs, such as methanol and acetonitrile (ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 nmol m-2 s-1) were, however, comparable with foliar uptake rates. Further studies are needed to corroborate these results and the possible importance of the soil VOC sink in regional chemistry-climate models. Long-term severe drought increased soil monoterpene emission rates in this Mediterranean shrubland. The increases seem to be linked to changes in the soil's physical properties induced by low soil moisture. Unlike monoterpenes, other soil VOC emission rates decreased when soil moisture was low. The results suggest a seasonal control of soil temperature on the emission rates of monoterpenes and other VOCs. The emission rates increase with soil temperature. Positive correlations between the VOC exchange rates and the soil CO2 fluxes suggest that phenology of roots and microorganisms also controls seasonal changes in soil VOCs in this Mediterranean shrubland. © 2008 The Authors.
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