Seasonal and diurnal variations of plant isoprenoid emissions from two dominant species in Mediterranean shrubland and forest submitted to experimental drought

Mu Z., Llusià J., Liu D., Ogaya R., Asensio D., Zhang C., Peñuelas J. (2018) Seasonal and diurnal variations of plant isoprenoid emissions from two dominant species in Mediterranean shrubland and forest submitted to experimental drought. Atmospheric Environment. 191: 105-115.
Enllaç
Doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.08.010

Resum:

We tested the effect of increasing drought conditions in the Mediterranean Basin on isoprenoid emissions for the coming decades by analyzing their effect experimentally on the dominant Mediterranean species Erica multiflora in a Garraf shrubland and Quercus ilex in a Prades forest in Catalonia (Spain). Drought was simulated in Garraf using automatically sliding curtains to decrease the amount of soil moisture by 5% and in Prades by partial rainfall exclusion and runoff exclusion for a 25% decrease. We measured photosynthetic rates (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and rates of isoprenoid emission in the morning and at midday for four seasons and determined the relationship of emission rates with environmental conditions. Terpenes were emitted by both species, but only E. multiflora emitted isoprene. α-Pinene and limonene were the most abundant terpenes. Isoprenoid emissions increased with air temperature and generally decreased as the amount of soil moisture increased. The results of this study suggest that higher isoprenoid emissions can be expected in the warmer and drier conditions predicted for the coming decades in the Mediterranean region. © 2018

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Impacts of global change on Mediterranean forests and their services

Peñuelas, J., Sardans, J., Filella, I., Estiarte, M., Llusià, J., Ogaya, R., Carnicer, J., Bartrons, M., Rivas-Ubach, A., Grau, O., Peguero, G., Margalef, O., Pla-Rabés, S., Stefanescu, C., Asensio, D., Preece, C., Liu, L., Verger, A., Barbeta, A., Achotegui-Castells, A., Gargallo-Garriga, A., Sperlich, D., Farré-Armengol, G., Fernández-Martínez, M., Liu, D., Zhang, C., Urbina, I., Camino-Serrano, M., Vives-Ingla, M., Stocker, B.D., Balzarolo, M., Guerrieri, R., Peaucelle, M., Marañón-Jiménez, S., Bórnez-Mejías, K., Mu, Z., Descals, A., Castellanos, A., Terradas, J. (2017) Impacts of global change on Mediterranean forests and their services. Forests. 8: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.3390/f8120463

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Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) for detecting responses of diurnal and seasonal photosynthetic activity to experimental drought and warming in a Mediterranean shrubland

Zhang, C., Filella, I., Liu, D., Ogaya, R., Llusià, J., Asensio, D., Peñuelas, J. (2017) Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) for detecting responses of diurnal and seasonal photosynthetic activity to experimental drought and warming in a Mediterranean shrubland. Remote Sensing. 9: 0-0.
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Doi: 10.3390/rs9111189

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Assessment of the impacts of climate change on Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems based on data from field experiments and long-term monitored field gradients in Catalonia

Peñuelas, J., Sardans, J., Filella, I., Estiarte, M., Llusià, J., Ogaya, R., Carnicer, J., Bartrons, M., Rivas-Ubach, A., Grau, O., Peguero, G., Margalef, O., Pla-Rabés, S., Stefanescu, C., Asensio, D., Preece, C., Liu, L., Verger, A., Rico, L., Barbeta, A., Achotegui-Castells, A., Gargallo-Garriga, A., Sperlich, D., Farré-Armengol, G., Fernández-Martínez, M., Liu, D., Zhang, C., Urbina, I., Camino, M., Vives, M., Nadal-Sala, D., Sabaté, S., Gracia, C., Terradas, J. (2016) Assessment of the impacts of climate change on Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems based on data from field experiments and long-term monitored field gradients in Catalonia. Environmental and Experimental Botany. : 0-0.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2017.05.012

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Foliar CO2 in a holm oak forest subjected to 15 years of climate change simulation

Ogaya R., Llusia J., Barbeta A., Asensio D., Liu D., Alessio G.A., Penuelas J. (2014) Foliar CO2 in a holm oak forest subjected to 15 years of climate change simulation. Plant Science. 226: 101-107.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2014.06.010

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A long-term experimental drought to simulate future expected climatic conditions for Mediterranean forests, a 15% decrease in soil moisture for the following decades, was conducted in a holm oak forest since 1999. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential were measured from 1999 to 2013 in Quercus ilex and Phillyrea latifolia, two co-dominant species of this forest. These measurements were performed in four plots, two of them received the drought treatment and the two other plots were control plots. The three studied variables decreased with increases in VPD and decreases in soil moisture in both species, but the decrease of leaf water potential during summer drought was larger in P. latifolia, whereas Q. ilex reached higher net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance values during rainy periods than P. latifolia. The drought treatment decreased ca. 8% the net photosynthetic rates during the overall studied period in both Q. ilex and P. latifolia, whereas there were just non-significant trends toward a decrease in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance induced by drought treatment. Future drier climate may lead to a decrease in the carbon balance of Mediterranean species, and some shrub species well resistant to drought could gain competitive advantage relative to Q. ilex, currently the dominant species of this forest. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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Litter VOCs induce changes in soil microbial biomass C and N and largely increase soil CO 2 efflux

Asensio D., Yuste J.C., Mattana S., Ribas À., Llusià J., Peñuelas J. (2012) Litter VOCs induce changes in soil microbial biomass C and N and largely increase soil CO 2 efflux. Plant and Soil. 360: 163-174.
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Doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1220-9

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Aims: We investigated the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by pine litter, specifically terpenes, on soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and heterotrophic soil respiration under different microclimatic scenarios of water availability and temperature. Methods: Soil in glass jars (0.6 L headspace) was exposed to pine needle litter, avoiding any physical contact between soils and litter. Treatments were subjected to two moisture levels, control and drought (20 % and 10 % gravimetric soil water content respectively) and to different temperatures (temperature response curve from 5 °C to 45 °C). Results: In control soils, exposure to litter was associated with a significant decrease in microbial biomass carbon and ninhydrin extractable organic nitrogen, and with a significant increase in heterotrophic respiration (up to 46 %) under optimum temperature (25 °C). Drought, on the other hand, restricted the effects of litter exposure on heterotrophic respiration but exposure to litter was associated with a significant increase in microbial biomass nitrogen. We did not detect significant overall microbial consumption of terpenes in this study. Conclusions: These results suggest either that other VOCs not measured in the study were being consumed and/or that VOCs emissions were triggering strong changes in the composition and functioning of soil microbial communities. More studies under field conditions are needed to assess the magnitude of litter VOCs effects on carbon and nitrogen cycles. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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Chlorophyll fluorescence responses to temperature and water availability in two co-dominant Mediterranean shrub and tree species in a long-term field experiment simulating climate change

Ogaya R., Peñuelas J., Asensio D., Llusià J. (2011) Chlorophyll fluorescence responses to temperature and water availability in two co-dominant Mediterranean shrub and tree species in a long-term field experiment simulating climate change. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 73: 89-93.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2011.08.004

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A rain exclusion experiment simulating drought conditions expected in Mediterranean areas for the following decades (15% decrease in soil moisture) is being conducted since 1999 in a Mediterranean holm oak forest to study its response to the forecasted climatic changes for the coming decades. The maximum PSII quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) was measured in Quercus ilex, and Phillyrea latifolia, the co-dominant species of the studied forest, from 1999 to 2009 in four plots: two of them were control plots and the other two plots received the rain exclusion treatment. In both species, the Fv/Fm values were highly dependent on air temperatures, and in a second term, in water availability. P. latifolia was the species with the larger decrease in Fv/Fm values induced by low air temperatures, while in hot seasons, the Fv/Fm values in P. latifolia were even higher than in Q. ilex. Rainfall exclusion decrease Fv/Fm values significantly only in few monitoring dates. The most drought resistant species P. latifolia was more affected by the experimental rainfall exclusion than Q. ilex that instead lost number of leaves per tree. There was a synergic effect of drought stress and winter cold in P. latifolia not observed in Q. ilex, but a more conservative strategy in P. latifolia maintaining leaves with a down-regulation of the linear photosynthetic electron transport. These results indicate that, although other physiological and reproductive strategies at whole plant level must be also taken into account, the warmer and drier environment expected for the following decades could favour the species more sensitive to cold and more resistant to drought, the shrub P. latifolia, in detriment of the tree Q. ilex as already observed in the field after severe heat-drought episodes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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Chlorophyll fluorescence responses to temperature and water availability in two co-dominant Mediterranean shrub and tree species in a long-term field experiment simulating climate change

Ogaya R., Peñuelas J., Asensio D., Llusià J. (2011) Chlorophyll fluorescence responses to temperature and water availability in two co-dominant Mediterranean shrub and tree species in a long-term field experiment simulating climate change. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 71: 123-127.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.10.016

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A rain exclusion experiment simulating drought conditions expected in Mediterranean areas for the following decades (15% decrease in soil moisture) is being conducted since 1999 in a Mediterranean holm oak forest to study its response to the forecasted climatic changes for the coming decades. The maximum PSII quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) was measured in Quercus ilex, and Phillyrea latifolia, the co-dominant species of the studied forest, from 1999 to 2009 in four plots: two of them were control plots and the other two plots received the rain exclusion treatment. In both species, the Fv/Fm values were highly dependent on air temperatures, and in a second term, in water availability. P. latifolia was the species with the larger decrease in Fv/Fm values induced by low air temperatures, while in hot seasons, the Fv/Fm values in P. latifolia were even higher than in Q. ilex. Rainfall exclusion decrease Fv/Fm values significantly only in few monitoring dates. The most drought resistant species P. latifolia was more affected by the experimental rainfall exclusion than Q. ilex that instead lost number of leaves per tree. There was a synergic effect of drought stress and winter cold in P. latifolia not observed in Q. ilex, but a more conservative strategy in P. latifolia maintaining leaves with a down-regulation of the linear photosynthetic electron transport. These results indicate that, although other physiological and reproductive strategies at whole plant level must be also taken into account, the warmer and drier environment expected for the following decades could favour the species more sensitive to cold and more resistant to drought, the shrub P. latifolia, in detriment of the tree Q. ilex as already observed in the field after severe heat-drought episodes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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Effects of experimental warming and drought on biomass accumulation in a Mediterranean shrubland

Prieto P., Peñuelas J., Llusià J., Asensio D., Estiarte M. (2009) Effects of experimental warming and drought on biomass accumulation in a Mediterranean shrubland. Plant Ecology. 205: 179-191.
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Doi: 10.1007/s11258-009-9608-1

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We studied the effects of experimental warming and drought on the plant biomass of a Mediterranean shrubland. We monitored growth at plant level and biomass accumulation at stand level. The experimentation period stretched over 7 years (1999-2005) and we focused on the two dominant shrub species, Erica multiflora L. and Globularia alypum L. and the tree species Pinus halepensis L. The warming treatment increased shoot elongation in E. multiflora, and the drought treatment reduced shoot elongation in G. alypum. The elongation of P. halepensis remained unaffected under both treatments. The balance between the patterns observed in biomass accumulation for the three studied species in the drought plots (reduction in E. multiflora and P. halepensis and increase in G. alypum) resulted in a trend to reduce 33% the biomass of the drought treatment plots with respect to the untreated plots, which almost doubled their biomass from 1998 to 2005. The results also suggest that under drier conditions larger accumulation of dead biomass may occur at stand level, which combined with higher temperatures, may thus increase fire risk in the Mediterranean area. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

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The distribution of volatile isoprenoids in the soil horizons around Pinus halepensis trees

Asensio D., Owen S.M., Llusià J., Peñuelas J. (2008) The distribution of volatile isoprenoids in the soil horizons around Pinus halepensis trees. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 40: 2937-2947.
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Doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.08.008

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We measured the terpene concentration in pentane and water extracts from soil horizons (litter, organic, top and low mineral) and from roots growing in top and low mineral horizons on a distance gradient from Pinus halepensis L. trees growing alone on a grassland. Terpene concentrations in pentane were higher than in water extracts, although β-caryophyllene showed relatively high solubility in water. The litter and roots were important sources of terpenes in soil. Alpha-pinene dominated in roots growing in both "top" (A1) and "low" (B) mineral horizons (123 ± 36 μg g-1 or 14 ± 5 mg m-2) and roots in low mineral horizon (270 ± 91 μg g-1 or 7 ± 2 mg m-2). Beta-caryophyllene dominated in litter (1469 ± 331 μg g-1 or 2004 ± 481 mg m-2). Terpene concentration in soil decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. This is likely to be related to changes in litter and roots type on the distance gradient from pine to grass and herbs. The relative contributions of all compounds, except α-pinene, were similar in the mineral soils and litter. This suggests that litter of P. halepensis is probably the main source of major terpene compounds. However, long-term emissions of α-pinene from P. halepensis roots might also contribute to α-pinene concentrations in rhizosphere soils. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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