Achotegui-Castells A., Della Rocca G., Llusià J., Danti R., Barberini S., Bouneb M., Simoni S., Michelozzi M., Peñuelas J. (2016) Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale - Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem. Scientific Reports. 6: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1038/srep18954
The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle.
Farré-Armengol, G., Filella, I., Llusia, J., Peñuelas, J. (2016) Bidirectional Interaction between Phyllospheric Microbiotas and Plant Volatile Emissions. Trends in Plant Science. 21: 854-860.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2016.06.005
Gargallo-Garriga A., Sardans J., Pérez-Trujillo M., Guenther A., Llusià J., Rico L., Terradas J., Farré-Armengol G., Filella I., Parella T., Peñuelas J. (2016) Shifts in plant foliar and floral metabolomes in response to the suppression of the associated microbiota. BMC Plant Biology. 16: 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1186/s12870-016-0767-7
Background: The phyllospheric microbiota is assumed to play a key role in the metabolism of host plants. Its role in determining the epiphytic and internal plant metabolome, however, remains to be investigated. We analyzed the Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) profiles of the epiphytic and internal metabolomes of the leaves and flowers of Sambucus nigra with and without external antibiotic treatment application. Results: The epiphytic metabolism showed a degree of complexity similar to that of the plant organs. The suppression of microbial communities by topical applications of antibiotics had a greater impact on the epiphytic metabolome than on the internal metabolomes of the plant organs, although even the latter changed significantly both in leaves and flowers. The application of antibiotics decreased the concentration of lactate in both epiphytic and organ metabolomes, and the concentrations of citraconic acid, acetyl-CoA, isoleucine, and several secondary compounds such as terpenes and phenols in the epiphytic extracts. The metabolite pyrogallol appeared in the floral epiphytic community only after the treatment. The concentrations of the amino acid precursors of the ketoglutarate-synthesis pathway tended to decrease in the leaves and to increase in the foliar epiphytic extracts. Conclusions: These results suggest that anaerobic and/or facultative anaerobic bacteria were present in high numbers in the phyllosphere and in the apoplasts of S. nigra. The results also show that microbial communities play a significant role in the metabolomes of plant organs and could have more complex and frequent mutualistic, saprophytic, and/or parasitic relationships with internal plant metabolism than currently assumed. © 2016 Gargallo-Garriga et al.
Liu D., Llusia J., Ogaya R., Estiarte M., Llorens L., Yang X., Peñuelas J. (2016) Physiological adjustments of a Mediterranean shrub to long-term experimental warming and drought treatments. Plant Science. 252: 53-61.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2016.07.004
Warmer temperatures and extended drought in the Mediterranean Basin are becoming increasingly important in determining plant physiological processes and affecting the regional carbon budget. The responses of plant physiological variables such as shoot water potential (Ψ), carbon-assimilation rates (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) to these climatic regimes, however, are not well understood. We conducted long-term (16 years) field experiments with mild nocturnal warming (+0.6 °C) and drought (−20% soil moisture) in a Mediterranean early-successional shrubland. Warming treatment moderately influenced Ψ, A and gs throughout the sampling periods, whereas drought treatment strongly influenced these variables, especially during the summer. The combination of a natural drought in summer 2003 and the treatments significantly decreased A and iWUE. Foliar δ13C increased in the treatments relative to control, but not significantly. The values of Ψ, A and gs were correlated negatively with vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and positively with soil moisture and tended to be more dependent on the availability of soil water. The plant, however, also improved the acclimation to drier and hotter conditions by physiological adjustments (gs and iWUE). Understanding these physiological processes in Mediterranean shrubs is crucial for assessing further climate change impacts on ecosystemic functions and services. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd
Peñuelas, J., Sardans, J., Filella, I., Estiarte, M., Llusià, J., Ogaya, R., Carnicer, J., Bartrons, M., Rivas-Ubach, A., Grau, O., Peguero, G., Margalef, O., Pla-Rabés, S., Stefanescu, C., Asensio, D., Preece, C., Liu, L., Verger, A., Rico, L., Barbeta, A., Achotegui-Castells, A., Gargallo-Garriga, A., Sperlich, D., Farré-Armengol, G., Fernández-Martínez, M., Liu, D., Zhang, C., Urbina, I., Camino, M., Vives, M., Nadal-Sala, D., Sabaté, S., Gracia, C., Terradas, J. (2016) Assessment of the impacts of climate change on Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems based on data from field experiments and long-term monitored field gradients in Catalonia. Environmental and Experimental Botany. : 0-0.EnllaçDoi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2017.05.012
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